Concentric Eyewall Formation in Typhoon Sinlaku (2008). Part III: Horizontal Momentum Budget Analyses

Yi-Hsuan Huang Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

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Chun-Chieh Wu Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

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Michael T. Montgomery Department of Meteorology, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California

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Abstract

This is a follow-up work to two prior studies examining secondary eyewall formation (SEF) in Typhoon Sinlaku (2008). This study shows that, in the SEF region, the majority of the elevated winds are supergradient. About two-thirds of the rapid increase in tangential wind tendencies immediately prior to SEF are attributed to agradient wind tendencies. This suggests the importance of nonlinear, unbalanced dynamical processes in SEF in addition to the classical axisymmetric balanced response to forcings of heating and momentum. In the SEF region, analyses show two distinct responsible processes for the increasing azimuthal tangential wind in two vertical intervals. Within the boundary inflow layer, the competing effect between the mean radial influx of absolute vorticity and deceleration caused by surface friction and subgrid diffusion yields a secondary maximum of positive tendency. Analyses further demonstrate the major impact of the mean radial influx of absolute vorticity on SEF. Above the boundary inflow layer, the vertical advection acts to vertically extend the tangential wind jet via the lofting of the enhanced tangential momentum farther upward. The roles of the nonlinear unbalanced dynamics in these two processes are discussed in this paper. From a Lagrangian perspective, the persistently increasing agradient force outweighs the frictional loss, effectively decelerating boundary layer inflowing air across the SEF region. This explains the sharpening of the radial gradient of boundary layer inflow, which is shown to be responsible for the buildup of a zone with concentrated boundary layer convergence. The previously proposed unbalanced dynamical pathway to SEF is elaborated upon and supported by the current results and discussion.

© 2018 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Chun-Chieh Wu, cwu@typhoon.as.ntu.edu.tw

This article has companion articles which can be found at http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00057.1 and http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JAS-D-11-0114.1

Abstract

This is a follow-up work to two prior studies examining secondary eyewall formation (SEF) in Typhoon Sinlaku (2008). This study shows that, in the SEF region, the majority of the elevated winds are supergradient. About two-thirds of the rapid increase in tangential wind tendencies immediately prior to SEF are attributed to agradient wind tendencies. This suggests the importance of nonlinear, unbalanced dynamical processes in SEF in addition to the classical axisymmetric balanced response to forcings of heating and momentum. In the SEF region, analyses show two distinct responsible processes for the increasing azimuthal tangential wind in two vertical intervals. Within the boundary inflow layer, the competing effect between the mean radial influx of absolute vorticity and deceleration caused by surface friction and subgrid diffusion yields a secondary maximum of positive tendency. Analyses further demonstrate the major impact of the mean radial influx of absolute vorticity on SEF. Above the boundary inflow layer, the vertical advection acts to vertically extend the tangential wind jet via the lofting of the enhanced tangential momentum farther upward. The roles of the nonlinear unbalanced dynamics in these two processes are discussed in this paper. From a Lagrangian perspective, the persistently increasing agradient force outweighs the frictional loss, effectively decelerating boundary layer inflowing air across the SEF region. This explains the sharpening of the radial gradient of boundary layer inflow, which is shown to be responsible for the buildup of a zone with concentrated boundary layer convergence. The previously proposed unbalanced dynamical pathway to SEF is elaborated upon and supported by the current results and discussion.

© 2018 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Chun-Chieh Wu, cwu@typhoon.as.ntu.edu.tw

This article has companion articles which can be found at http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00057.1 and http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JAS-D-11-0114.1

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