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The Potential Role of Atmospheric Bores and Gravity Waves in the Initiation and Maintenance of Nocturnal Convection over the Southern Great Plains

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  • 1 School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma
  • | 2 Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, New York
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Abstract

This investigation explores the relationship among bores, gravity waves, and convection within the nocturnal environment through the utilization of measurements taken during the International H2O Project (IHOP_2002) over the Southern Great Plains. The most favorable conditions for deep convection were found to occur within the boundary layer during the late afternoon and early evening hours in association with the diurnal cycle of solar insolation. At night, the layers most favorable for deep convection occur at and above the height of the nocturnal southerly low-level jet in association with distinct maxima in both the southerly and westerly components of the wind. Observations taken during the passage of 13 nocturnal wave disturbances over a comprehensive profiling site show the average maximum and net upward displacements with these waves were estimated to be ~900 and ~660 m, respectively. The lifting was not limited to the stable boundary layer, but reached into the conditionally unstable layers aloft. Since the net upward displacements persisted for many hours as the disturbances propagated away from the convection, areas well in excess of 10 000 km2 are likely impacted by this ascent. This lifting can directly maintain existing convection and aid in the initiation of new convection by reducing the convective inhibition in the vicinity of the active convection. In agreement with past studies, strong ascent in the lowest ~1.5 km was generally consistent with the passage of a bore. However, separate wave responses also occurred well above the bores, and low-frequency gravity waves may explain such disturbances.

© 2018 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: David B. Parsons, dparsons@ou.edu

This article is included in the Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) Special Collection.

Abstract

This investigation explores the relationship among bores, gravity waves, and convection within the nocturnal environment through the utilization of measurements taken during the International H2O Project (IHOP_2002) over the Southern Great Plains. The most favorable conditions for deep convection were found to occur within the boundary layer during the late afternoon and early evening hours in association with the diurnal cycle of solar insolation. At night, the layers most favorable for deep convection occur at and above the height of the nocturnal southerly low-level jet in association with distinct maxima in both the southerly and westerly components of the wind. Observations taken during the passage of 13 nocturnal wave disturbances over a comprehensive profiling site show the average maximum and net upward displacements with these waves were estimated to be ~900 and ~660 m, respectively. The lifting was not limited to the stable boundary layer, but reached into the conditionally unstable layers aloft. Since the net upward displacements persisted for many hours as the disturbances propagated away from the convection, areas well in excess of 10 000 km2 are likely impacted by this ascent. This lifting can directly maintain existing convection and aid in the initiation of new convection by reducing the convective inhibition in the vicinity of the active convection. In agreement with past studies, strong ascent in the lowest ~1.5 km was generally consistent with the passage of a bore. However, separate wave responses also occurred well above the bores, and low-frequency gravity waves may explain such disturbances.

© 2018 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: David B. Parsons, dparsons@ou.edu

This article is included in the Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) Special Collection.

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