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The Axisymmetric and Asymmetric Aspects of the Secondary Eyewall Formation in a Numerically Simulated Tropical Cyclone under Idealized Conditions on an f Plane

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  • 1 State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China
  • | 2 State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China, and International Pacific Research Center, and Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawaii
  • | 3 State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China
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Abstract

The axisymmetric and asymmetric aspects of the secondary eyewall formation (SEF) in a numerically simulated tropical cyclone (TC) under idealized conditions were analyzed. Consistent with previous findings, prior to the SEF, the tangential wind of the TC experienced an outward expansion both above and within the boundary layer near and outside the region of the SEF later. This outward expansion was found to be closely related to the top-down development and inward propagation of a strong outer rainband, which was characterized by deeper and more intense convection upwind and shallower and weaker convection downwind. In response to diabatic heating in the outer rainband was inflow in the mid- to lower troposphere, which brought the absolute angular momentum inward and spun up tangential wind in the inflow region and also in the convective region because of vertical advection. As a result, as the outer rainband intensified and spiraled cyclonically inward, perturbation tangential and radial winds also spiraled cyclonically inward and downward along the rainband. As it approached the outer edge of the rapid filamentation zone outside the primary eyewall, the downwind sector of the rainband in the boundary layer was rapidly axisymmetrized. Continuous inward propagation and axisymmetrization and secondarily the merging with inner rainbands led to the spinup of tangential wind in the boundary layer, enhancing surface enthalpy flux and convection and eventually leading to the simulated SEF. Our results demonstrate that the simulated SEF was a top-down process and was mainly triggered by asymmetric dynamics.

© 2019 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Prof. Yuqing Wang, yuqing@hawaii.edu

Abstract

The axisymmetric and asymmetric aspects of the secondary eyewall formation (SEF) in a numerically simulated tropical cyclone (TC) under idealized conditions were analyzed. Consistent with previous findings, prior to the SEF, the tangential wind of the TC experienced an outward expansion both above and within the boundary layer near and outside the region of the SEF later. This outward expansion was found to be closely related to the top-down development and inward propagation of a strong outer rainband, which was characterized by deeper and more intense convection upwind and shallower and weaker convection downwind. In response to diabatic heating in the outer rainband was inflow in the mid- to lower troposphere, which brought the absolute angular momentum inward and spun up tangential wind in the inflow region and also in the convective region because of vertical advection. As a result, as the outer rainband intensified and spiraled cyclonically inward, perturbation tangential and radial winds also spiraled cyclonically inward and downward along the rainband. As it approached the outer edge of the rapid filamentation zone outside the primary eyewall, the downwind sector of the rainband in the boundary layer was rapidly axisymmetrized. Continuous inward propagation and axisymmetrization and secondarily the merging with inner rainbands led to the spinup of tangential wind in the boundary layer, enhancing surface enthalpy flux and convection and eventually leading to the simulated SEF. Our results demonstrate that the simulated SEF was a top-down process and was mainly triggered by asymmetric dynamics.

© 2019 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Prof. Yuqing Wang, yuqing@hawaii.edu
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