On Relationships between Nonrecurving Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclones, the Madden–Julian Oscillation, and the East Asian Subtropical Jet

Lawrence C. Gloeckler III Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, New York

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Paul E. Roundy Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, New York

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Abstract

A 200-hPa zonal momentum budget is performed to examine the role that western North Pacific tropical cyclones (TCs) play in helping to organize intraseasonal extratropical circulation anomalies that occur with the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). Zonal wind is linearly decomposed into components that occur on MJO time scales (i.e., 20–100-day periods), as well as those that occur with lower and higher frequency. Dates during Northern Hemisphere fall that feature nonrecurving TCs within a search radius centered on a South China Sea grid point when the MJO is convectively active over the Maritime Continent and west Pacific warm pool are used to generate composites of relevant budget terms. These composites are then compared to others that are based on the full list of dates that feature a convectively active MJO in the same location during NH fall without regard for TC presence. Composite results highlight the primary momentum sources that guide the evolution of the NH extratropical zonal wind and associated mass field in each event set. TCs help to accelerate the East Asian subtropical jet that evolves with the MJO by modulating the high-frequency subtropical circulation over Southeast Asia. The phasing of this circulation with its underlying MJO time-scale component enables it to transfer momentum to the emerging subtropical jet. This momentum is integrated into the more slowly evolving flow and carried forward by other processes, which leads to the development of a westerly momentum surge along the subtropical jet that spans the length of the North Pacific Ocean.

Current affiliation: Riskpulse, Austin, Texas.

© 2019 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Lawrence C. Gloeckler III, lgloeckler@albany.edu

Abstract

A 200-hPa zonal momentum budget is performed to examine the role that western North Pacific tropical cyclones (TCs) play in helping to organize intraseasonal extratropical circulation anomalies that occur with the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). Zonal wind is linearly decomposed into components that occur on MJO time scales (i.e., 20–100-day periods), as well as those that occur with lower and higher frequency. Dates during Northern Hemisphere fall that feature nonrecurving TCs within a search radius centered on a South China Sea grid point when the MJO is convectively active over the Maritime Continent and west Pacific warm pool are used to generate composites of relevant budget terms. These composites are then compared to others that are based on the full list of dates that feature a convectively active MJO in the same location during NH fall without regard for TC presence. Composite results highlight the primary momentum sources that guide the evolution of the NH extratropical zonal wind and associated mass field in each event set. TCs help to accelerate the East Asian subtropical jet that evolves with the MJO by modulating the high-frequency subtropical circulation over Southeast Asia. The phasing of this circulation with its underlying MJO time-scale component enables it to transfer momentum to the emerging subtropical jet. This momentum is integrated into the more slowly evolving flow and carried forward by other processes, which leads to the development of a westerly momentum surge along the subtropical jet that spans the length of the North Pacific Ocean.

Current affiliation: Riskpulse, Austin, Texas.

© 2019 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Lawrence C. Gloeckler III, lgloeckler@albany.edu
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