Quantifying Eddy Generation and Dissipation in the Jet Response to Upper- versus Lower-Level Thermal Forcing

Yu Nie aLaboratory for Climate Studies, CMA–NJU Joint Laboratory for Climate Prediction Studies, National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Yu Nie in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7019-0442
,
Yang Zhang bCMA–NJU Joint Laboratory for Climate Prediction Studies, Institute for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China

Search for other papers by Yang Zhang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Gang Chen cDepartment of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California

Search for other papers by Gang Chen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Xiu-Qun Yang bCMA–NJU Joint Laboratory for Climate Prediction Studies, Institute for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China

Search for other papers by Xiu-Qun Yang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

The relative roles of upper- and lower-level thermal forcing in shifting the eddy-driven jet are investigated using a multilevel nonlinear quasigeostrophic channel model. The numerical experiments show that the upper-level thermal forcing is more efficient in shifting the eddy-driven jet. The finite-amplitude wave activity diagnostics of numerical results show that the dominance of the upper-level thermal forcing over the lower-level thermal forcing can be understood from their different influence on eddy generation and dissipation that affects the jet shift. The upper-level thermal forcing shifts the jet primarily by affecting the baroclinic generation of eddies. The lower-level thermal forcing influences the jet mainly by affecting the wave breaking and dissipation. The former eddy response turns out to be more efficient for the thermal forcing to shift the eddy-driven jet. Furthermore, two quantitative relationships based on the imposed thermal forcing are proposed to quantify the response of both eddy generation and eddy dissipation, and thus to help predict the shift of eddy-driven jet in response to the vertically nonuniform thermal forcing. By conducting the overriding experiments in which the response of barotropic zonal wind is locked in the model and a multiwavenumber theory in which the eddy diffusivity is decomposed to contributions from eddies and mean flow, we find that the eddy generation response is sensitive to the vertical structure of the thermal forcing and can be quantified by the imposed temperature gradient in the upper troposphere. In contrast, the response of eddy diffusivity is almost vertically independent of the imposed forcing, and can be quantified by the imposed vertically averaged thermal wind.

Significance Statement

Climate models predict enhanced warming over tropical upper troposphere and Arctic surface in response to greenhouse gas increases, which has competing effects on the latitudinal shift of eddy-driven jet and thus requires a better understanding of the relative roles of upper- and lower-tropospheric thermal forcing for future climate projection. We make a new quantitative comparison on responses of eddy generation and dissipation that sustain the jet shift and relate them to the imposed thermal forcing. This approach extends the fundamental eddy closure topic from vertically uniform situation to vertically nonuniform forcing. These quantitative relationships are also helpful for better understanding and predicting the jet and storm-track variabilities under other forms of thermal forcing (e.g., SST front, aerosols, latent heat release).

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Yang Zhang, yangzhang@nju.edu.cn

Abstract

The relative roles of upper- and lower-level thermal forcing in shifting the eddy-driven jet are investigated using a multilevel nonlinear quasigeostrophic channel model. The numerical experiments show that the upper-level thermal forcing is more efficient in shifting the eddy-driven jet. The finite-amplitude wave activity diagnostics of numerical results show that the dominance of the upper-level thermal forcing over the lower-level thermal forcing can be understood from their different influence on eddy generation and dissipation that affects the jet shift. The upper-level thermal forcing shifts the jet primarily by affecting the baroclinic generation of eddies. The lower-level thermal forcing influences the jet mainly by affecting the wave breaking and dissipation. The former eddy response turns out to be more efficient for the thermal forcing to shift the eddy-driven jet. Furthermore, two quantitative relationships based on the imposed thermal forcing are proposed to quantify the response of both eddy generation and eddy dissipation, and thus to help predict the shift of eddy-driven jet in response to the vertically nonuniform thermal forcing. By conducting the overriding experiments in which the response of barotropic zonal wind is locked in the model and a multiwavenumber theory in which the eddy diffusivity is decomposed to contributions from eddies and mean flow, we find that the eddy generation response is sensitive to the vertical structure of the thermal forcing and can be quantified by the imposed temperature gradient in the upper troposphere. In contrast, the response of eddy diffusivity is almost vertically independent of the imposed forcing, and can be quantified by the imposed vertically averaged thermal wind.

Significance Statement

Climate models predict enhanced warming over tropical upper troposphere and Arctic surface in response to greenhouse gas increases, which has competing effects on the latitudinal shift of eddy-driven jet and thus requires a better understanding of the relative roles of upper- and lower-tropospheric thermal forcing for future climate projection. We make a new quantitative comparison on responses of eddy generation and dissipation that sustain the jet shift and relate them to the imposed thermal forcing. This approach extends the fundamental eddy closure topic from vertically uniform situation to vertically nonuniform forcing. These quantitative relationships are also helpful for better understanding and predicting the jet and storm-track variabilities under other forms of thermal forcing (e.g., SST front, aerosols, latent heat release).

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Yang Zhang, yangzhang@nju.edu.cn
Save
  • Barnes, E. A., and D. W. J. Thompson, 2014: Comparing the roles of barotropic versus baroclinic feedbacks in the atmosphere’s response to mechanical forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 71, 177194, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-070.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brayshaw, D. J., B. Hoskins, and M. Blackburn, 2008: The storm-track response to idealized SST perturbations in an aquaplanet GCM. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 28422860, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JAS2657.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burrows, D. A., G. Chen, and L. Sun, 2017: Barotropic and baroclinic eddy feedbacks in the midlatitude jet variability and responses to climate change–like thermal forcings. J. Atmos. Sci., 74, 111132, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-16-0047.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Butler, A. H., D. W. J. Thompson, and R. Heikes, 2010: The steady-state atmospheric circulation response to climate change–like thermal forcings in a simple general circulation model. J. Climate, 23, 34743496, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3228.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Butler, A. H., D. W. J. Thompson, and T. Birner, 2011: Isentropic slopes, downgradient eddy fluxes, and the extratropical atmospheric circulation response to tropical tropospheric heating. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 22922305, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-10-05025.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, E. K. M., 1998: Poleward-propagating angular momentum perturbations induced by zonally symmetric heat sources in the tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 22292248, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1998)055<2229:PPAMPI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, E. K. M., Y. Guo, and X. Xia, 2012: CMIP5 multimodel ensemble projection of storm track change under global warming. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D23118, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD018578.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, G., and I. M. Held, 2007: Phase speed spectra and the recent poleward shift of Southern Hemisphere surface westerlies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L21805, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL031200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, G., J. Lu, and L. Sun, 2013: Delineating the eddy–zonal flow interaction in the atmospheric circulation response to climate forcing: Uniform SST warming in an idealized aquaplanet model. J. Atmos. Sci., 70, 22142233, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-12-0248.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, G., P. Zhang, and J. Lu, 2020: Sensitivity of the latitude of the westerly jet stream to climate forcing. Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, e2019GL086563, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL086563.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, R., S. T. Gille, J. L. McClean, G. R. Flierl, and A. Griesel, 2015: A multiwavenumber theory for eddy diffusivities and its application to the southeast Pacific (DIMES) region. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 45, 18771896, https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-14-0229.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deser, C., R. A. Tomas, and L. Sun, 2015: The role of ocean–atmosphere coupling in the zonal-mean atmospheric response to Arctic sea ice loss. J. Climate, 28, 21682186, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00325.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deser, C., R. A. Tomas, and L. Sun, 2016: The role of ocean heat transport in the global climate response to projected Arctic sea ice loss. J. Climate, 29, 68416859, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0651.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gall, R., 1976: A comparison of linear baroclinic instability theory with the eddy statistics of a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 349373, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1976)033<0349:ACOLBI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gliatto, M. T., and I. M. Held, 2020: Overtransmission of Rossby waves at a lower-layer critical latitude in the two-layer model. J. Atmos. Sci., 77, 859870, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-19-0055.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Green, J., 1970: Transfer properties of the large-scale eddies and the general circulation of the atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 96, 157185, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49709640802.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hartmann, D. L., 2015: Global Physical Climatology. 2nd ed. Elsevier, 485 pp.

  • Hartmann, D. L., and P. Zuercher, 1998: Response of baroclinic life cycles to barotropic shear. J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 297313, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1998)055<0297:ROBLCT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harvey, B. J., L. C. Shaffrey, and T. J. Woollings, 2014: Equator-to-pole temperature differences and the extra-tropical storm track responses of the CMIP5 climate models. Climate Dyn., 43, 11711182, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-013-1883-9.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Held, I. M., 1978: The vertical scale of an unstable baroclinic wave and its importance for eddy heat flux parameterizations. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 572576, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1978)035<0572:TVSOAU>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Held, I. M., and E. O’Brien, 1992: Quasigeostrophic turbulence in a three-layer model: Effects of vertical structure in the mean shear. J. Atmos. Sci., 49, 18611870, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1992)049<1861:QTIATL>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Held, I. M., and V. Larichev, 1996: A scaling theory for horizontally homogeneous, baroclinically unstable flow on a beta plane. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 946952, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1996)053<0946:ASTFHH>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B. J., and P. J. Valdes, 1990: On the existence of storm-tracks. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 18541864, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1990)047<1854:OTEOST>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hotta, D., and H. Nakamura, 2011: On the significance of the sensible heat supply from the ocean in the maintenance of the mean baroclinicity along storm tracks. J. Climate, 24, 33773401, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3910.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kidston, J., G. K. Vallis, S. M. Dean, and J. A. Renwick, 2011: Can the increase in the eddy length scale under global warming cause the poleward shift of the jet streams? J. Climate, 24, 37643780, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3738.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kug, J.-S., and F.-F. Jin, 2009: Left-hand rule for synoptic eddy feedback on low-frequency flow. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L05709, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL036435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, Y., D. W. J. Thompson, S. Bony, and T. M. Merlis, 2019: Thermodynamic control on the poleward shift of the extratropical jet in climate change simulations: The role of rising high clouds and their radiative effects. J. Climate, 32, 917934, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0417.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lindzen, R. S., and J. W. Barker, 1985: Instability and wave over-reflection in stably stratified shear flow. J. Fluid Mech., 151, 189217, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112085000921.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lorenz, D. J., 2014a: Understanding midlatitude jet variability and change using Rossby wave chromatography: Methodology. J. Atmos. Sci., 72, 369388, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-0199.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lorenz, D. J., 2014b: Understanding midlatitude jet variability and change using Rossby wave chromatography: Poleward-shifted jets in response to external forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 71, 23702389, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-0200.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lorenz, D. J., and D. L. Hartmann, 2001: Eddy–zonal flow feedback in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 33123327, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<3312:EZFFIT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lorenz, D. J., and D. L. Hartmann, 2003: Eddy–zonal flow feedback in the Northern Hemisphere winter. J. Climate, 16, 12121227, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2003)16<1212:EFFITN>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lorenz, D. J., and E. DeWeaver, 2007: Tropopause height and zonal wind response to global warming in the IPCC scenario integrations. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10119, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD008087.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lu, J., G. Chen, and D. M. Frierson, 2008: Response of the zonal mean atmospheric circulation to El Niño versus global warming. J. Climate, 21, 58355851, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2200.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lu, J., L. Sun, Y. Wu, and G. Chen, 2013: The role of subtropical irreversible PV mixing in the zonal mean circulation response to global warming–like thermal forcing. J. Climate, 27, 22972316, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00372.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mbengue, C., and T. Schneider, 2017: Storm-track shifts under climate change: Toward a mechanistic understanding using baroclinic mean available potential energy. J. Atmos. Sci., 74, 93110, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-15-0267.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McIntyre, M. E., and M. A. Weissman, 1978: On radiating instabilities and resonant overreflection. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 11901196, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1978)035<1190:ORIARO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakamura, N., and A. Solomon, 2010: Finite-amplitude wave activity and mean flow adjustments in the atmospheric general circulation. Part I: Quasigeostrophic theory and analysis. J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 39673983, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JAS3503.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakamura, N., and D. Zhu, 2010: Finite-amplitude wave activity and diffusive flux of potential vorticity in eddy–mean flow interaction. J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 27012716, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JAS3432.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakamura, N., and A. Solomon, 2011: Finite-amplitude wave activity and mean flow adjustments in the atmospheric general circulation. Part II: Analysis in the isentropic coordinate. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 27832799, https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JAS3685.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nie, Y., Y. Zhang, G. Chen, X.-Q. Yang, and D. A. Burrows, 2014: Quantifying barotropic and baroclinic eddy feedbacks in the persistence of the Southern Annular Mode. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 86368644, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL062210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nie, Y., Y. Zhang, G. Chen, and X.-Q. Yang, 2016: Delineating the barotropic and baroclinic mechanisms in the midlatitude eddy-driven jet response to lower-tropospheric thermal forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 429448, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-15-0090.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Novak, L., M. H. P. Ambaum, and B. J. Harvey, 2018: Baroclinic adjustment and dissipative control of storm tracks. J. Atmos. Sci., 75, 29552970, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-17-0210.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pavan, V., 1996: Sensitivity of a multi-layer quasi-geostrophic β-channel to the vertical structure of the equilibrium meridional temperature gradient. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 122, 5572, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49712252904.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pfeffer, R. L., 1987: Comparison of conventional and transformed in the troposphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 113, 237254, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49711347514.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ren, H.-L., F.-F. Jin, J.-S. Kug, J.-X. Zhao, and J. Park, 2009: A kinematic mechanism for positive feedback between synoptic eddies and NAO. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L11709, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL037294.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rivière, G., 2011: A dynamical interpretation of the poleward shift of the jet streams in global warming scenarios. J. Atmos. Sci., 68, 12531272, https://doi.org/10.1175/2011JAS3641.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robert, L., G. Riviere, and F. Codron, 2019: Effect of upper- and lower-level baroclinicity on the persistence of the leading mode of midlatitude jet variability. J. Atmos. Sci., 76, 155169, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-18-0010.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schneider, T., and C. C. Walker, 2008: Scaling laws and regime transitions of macroturbulence in dry atmospheres. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 21532173, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JAS2616.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shaw, T. A., and Coauthors, 2016: Storm track processes and the opposing influences of climate change. Nat. Geosci., 9, 656664, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2783.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simmons, A. J., and B. J. Hoskins, 1978: The life cycles of some nonlinear baroclinic waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 411431, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1978)035<0414:TLCOSN>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stone, P. H., 1972: A simplified radiative-dynamical model for the static stability of rotating atmospheres. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 405418, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1972)029<0405:ASRDMF>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stone, P. H., 1978: Baroclinic adjustment. J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 561571, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1978)035<0561:BA>2.0.CO;2.

  • Stone, P. H., and M.-S. Yao, 1987: Development of a two-dimensional zonally averaged statistical–dynamical model. Part II: The role of eddy momentum fluxes in the general circulation and their parameterization. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 37693786, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1987)044<3769:DOATDZ>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, L., G. Chen, and J. Lu, 2013: Sensitivities and mechanisms of the zonal mean atmospheric circulation response to tropical warming. J. Atmos. Sci., 70, 15691586, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-12-0298.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thorncroft, C., B. Hoskins, and M. McIntyre, 1993: Two paradigms of baroclinic-wave life-cycle behaviour. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 119, 1755, https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.49711950903.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, L., and N. Nakamura, 2015: Covariation of finite-amplitude wave activity and the zonal mean flow in the midlatitude troposphere: 1. Theory and application to the Southern Hemisphere summer. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 81928200, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL065830.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, L., and S. Lee, 2016: The role of eddy diffusivity on a poleward jet shift. J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 49454958, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-16-0082.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, Y., R. Seager, T. A. Shaw, M. Ting, and N. Naik, 2013: Atmospheric circulation response to an instantaneous doubling of carbon dioxide. Part II: Atmospheric transient adjustment and its dynamics. J. Climate, 26, 918935, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00104.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xiao, B., Y. Zhang, X.-Q. Yang, and Y. Nie, 2016: On the role of extratropical air-sea interaction in the persistence of the Southern Annular Mode. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 88068814, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL070255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yuval, J., and Y. Kaspi, 2016: Eddy activity sensitivity to changes in the vertical structure of baroclinicity. J. Atmos. Sci., 73, 17091726, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-15-0128.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yuval, J., and Y. Kaspi, 2017: The effect of vertical baroclinicity concentration on atmospheric macroturbulence scaling relations. J. Atmos. Sci., 74, 16511667, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-16-0277.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yuval, J., and Y. Kaspi, 2020: Eddy activity response to global warming–like temperature changes. J. Climate, 33, 13811404, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0190.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, Y., P. Stone, and A. Solomon, 2009: The role of boundary layer processes in limiting PV homogenization. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 16121632, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JAS2914.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, Y., X.-Q. Yang, Y. Nie, and G. Chen, 2012: Annular mode–like variation in a multilayer quasigeostrophic model. J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 29402958, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-11-0214.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zurita-Gotor, P., 2007: The relation between baroclinic adjustment and turbulent diffusion in the two-layer model. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 12841300, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS3886.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zurita-Gotor, P., and R. Lindzen, 2007: Theories of baroclinic adjustment and eddy equilibration. The Global Circulation of the Atmosphere: Phenomena, Theory, Challenges, T. Schneider and A. Sobel, Eds., Princeton University Press, 2246.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zurita-Gotor, P., and G. K. Vallis, 2009: Equilibration of baroclinic turbulence in primitive equation and quasigeostrophic models. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 837863, https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JAS2848.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zurita-Gotor, P., and G. K. Vallis, 2010: Circulation sensitivity to heating in a simple model of baroclinic turbulence. J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 15431558, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JAS3314.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 540 355 23
Full Text Views 263 164 3
PDF Downloads 275 169 6