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The Ice Particle and Aggregate Simulator (IPAS). Part III: Verification and Analysis of Ice–Aggregate and Aggregate–Aggregate Collection for Microphysical Parameterization

Vanessa M. PrzybyloaUniversity at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, New York

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Kara J. SuliaaUniversity at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, New York

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Zachary J. LebobUniversity of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming

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Carl G. SchmittcNCAR, Boulder, Colorado

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Abstract

The Ice Particle and Aggregate Simulator (IPAS) is used to theoretically represent the aggregation process of ice crystals. Aggregates have a variety of formations based on initial ice particle size, shape, and falling orientation, all of which influence water phase partitioning. Aggregate dimensional properties and density changes are calculated for monomer–monomer (MON–MON), monomer–aggregate (MON–AGG), and aggregate–aggregate (AGG–AGG) collection to be used by ice-microphysical models for improvement in aggregation parameterizations. Aggregates are chosen from a database of 9 744 000 preformed combinations to be further collected (see ). AGG–AGG collection results in more extreme and a smaller range of aggregate aspect ratios than MON–AGG collection. A majority of aggregates are closer to prolate than oblate spheroids, regardless of collection type, except for quasi-horizontally oriented particles that have extreme aspect ratios to begin with. MON–AGG collection frequently results in an increase in density upon collection, whereas MON–MON and AGG–AGG collection almost always result in particle density decreases, with extreme reductions near 99% for MON–MON collection. MON–MON collection results in the greatest decreases in density but then quickly becomes unaffected by the addition of more monomers due to inherent size differences between monomers and aggregates. Finally, a holistic analysis to in situ observations of cloud particle images is presented. IPAS 2D aspect ratios surround a median value of 0.6 and closely follow that of previous studies while varying by no more than ≈12% on average from observed aggregates.

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Schmitt’s current affiliation: University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska.

Corresponding author: Vanessa Przybylo, vprzybylo@albany.edu

Abstract

The Ice Particle and Aggregate Simulator (IPAS) is used to theoretically represent the aggregation process of ice crystals. Aggregates have a variety of formations based on initial ice particle size, shape, and falling orientation, all of which influence water phase partitioning. Aggregate dimensional properties and density changes are calculated for monomer–monomer (MON–MON), monomer–aggregate (MON–AGG), and aggregate–aggregate (AGG–AGG) collection to be used by ice-microphysical models for improvement in aggregation parameterizations. Aggregates are chosen from a database of 9 744 000 preformed combinations to be further collected (see ). AGG–AGG collection results in more extreme and a smaller range of aggregate aspect ratios than MON–AGG collection. A majority of aggregates are closer to prolate than oblate spheroids, regardless of collection type, except for quasi-horizontally oriented particles that have extreme aspect ratios to begin with. MON–AGG collection frequently results in an increase in density upon collection, whereas MON–MON and AGG–AGG collection almost always result in particle density decreases, with extreme reductions near 99% for MON–MON collection. MON–MON collection results in the greatest decreases in density but then quickly becomes unaffected by the addition of more monomers due to inherent size differences between monomers and aggregates. Finally, a holistic analysis to in situ observations of cloud particle images is presented. IPAS 2D aspect ratios surround a median value of 0.6 and closely follow that of previous studies while varying by no more than ≈12% on average from observed aggregates.

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Schmitt’s current affiliation: University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska.

Corresponding author: Vanessa Przybylo, vprzybylo@albany.edu
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