• Brázdil, R., Z. W. Kundzewicz, and G. Benito, 2006: Historical hydrology for studying flood risk in Europe. Hydrol. Sci. J., 51, 739764, https://doi.org/10.1623/hysj.51.5.739.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cook, E. R., 2004: Long-term aridity changes in the western United States. Science, 306, 10151018, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1102586.

  • Cook, E. R., R. Seager, R. R. Heim Jr., R. S. Vose, C. Herweijer, and C. Woodhouse, 2010: Megadroughts in North America: Placing IPCC projections of hydroclimatic change in a long-term palaeoclimate context. J. Quat. Sci., 25, 4861, https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.1303.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ding, Y., Y. Sun, Z. Wang, Y. Zhu, and Y. Song, 2009: Inter-decadal variation of the summer precipitation in China and its association with decreasing Asian summer monsoon. Part II: Possible causes. Int. J. Climatol., 29, 19261944, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1759.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Editorial Board, 1993: Appearance of monument Baiheliang from water. Design of Hydroelectric Station, 42 pp.

  • Esper, J., E. R. Cook, and H. F. Schweingruber, 2002: Low-frequency signals in long tree-ring chronologies for reconstructing past temperature variability. Science, 295, 22502253, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1066208.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Institute of Ancient Documents, 1998: Complete Collection of the Poetry in Song Dynasty. Vol. 64, Peking University Press, 621 pp.

  • Jiang, Z., S. Yang, J. He, J. Li, and J. Liang, 2008: Interdecadal variations of east asian summer monsoon northward propagation and influences on summer precipitation over east China. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 100, 101119, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00703-008-0298-3.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, P. D., and M. Hulme, 1996: Calculating regional climatic time series for temperature and precipitation: Methods and illustrations. Int. J. Climatol., 16, 361377, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(199604)16:4<361::AID-JOC53>3.0.CO;2-F.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kleppe, J. A., D. S. Brothers, G. M. Kent, F. Biondi, and N. W. Driscoll, 2011: Duration and severity of Medieval drought in the Lake Tahoe basin. Quat. Sci. Rev., 30, 32693279, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2011.08.015.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, H., X. Wu, and X. Shao, 1996: A preliminary study on climate change during historical time using image analysis of tree-ring in Kangding area, Sichuan Province. Geogr. Res., 15, 4451.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, X., D. H. Qin, X. M. Shao, T. Chen, and J. W. Ren, 2005: Temperature variations recovered from tree-rings in the middle Qilian Mountain over the last millennium. Sci. China, 48D, 521529, https://doi.org/10.1360/03yd0063.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Man, Z. M., and Y. D. Yang, 2014: Documental evidence of impacts of increased temperature during the Medieval Warm Period on natural environment of eastern China. Quat. Res., 34, 11971203.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qian, Y., L. R. Leung, S. J. Ghan, and F. Giorgi, 2003: Regional climate effects of aerosols over China: Modeling and observation. Tellus, 55B, 914934, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1435-6935.2003.00070.x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qiao, S. X., and Z. H. Chen, 1999: The building of chronological tables of carved stone records for low water and flood within upper reaches of the Changjiang River through the age. Meteor. J. Hubei, 1999, 6371.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ren, G., 1998: Pollen evidence for increased summer rainfall in the Medieval Warm Period at Maili, Northeast China. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 19311934, https://doi.org/10.1029/98GL01508.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ren, G. Y., and et al. , 2005: Recent progress in studies of regional temperature change in China. Climatic Environ. Res., 10, 701717.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stine, S., 1994: Extreme and persistent drought in California and Patagonia during mediaeval time. Nature, 369, 546549, https://doi.org/10.1038/369546a0.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, H., 2016: The examinations on some issues about the White Crane Ridge inscriptions in Fuling. Acta Archaeol. Sin., 2016, 4988.

  • Sun, H., and Y. Y. Chen, 2014: History and value of Bai Heliang’s inscription. Sichuan Cultural Relic, 2014, 4453.

  • Tan, L. C., and et al. , 2018: High resolution monsoon precipitation changes on southeastern Tibetan Plateau over the past 2300 years. Quat. Sci. Rev., 195, 122132

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Verschuren, D., K. R. Laird, and B. F. Cumming, 2000: Rainfall and drought in equatorial east Africa during the past 1100 years. Nature, 403, 410414, https://doi.org/10.1038/35000179.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Y. F., 1996: Ancient water level indicators in Sichuan Province. Sichuan Water Conservancy, 5, 5154.

  • Wang, Y. F., 1998: Application of the Yangtze Baiheliang inscriptions to scientific and cultural studies. Sichuan Water Conservancy, 6, 5053.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woodhouse, C. A., and J. T. Overpeck, 1998: 2000 years of drought variability in the central United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 26932714, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079<2693:YODVIT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, P., L. Wang, and X. Shao, 2008: Reconstruction of summer temperature variation from maximum density of alpine pine during 1917–2002 for west Sichuan Plateau, China. J. Geogr. Sci., 18, 201210, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11442-008-0201-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yangtze Valley Planning Office and Chongqing City Museum, 1974: An investigation of historical low flows in Chuan-Yu section of the upper Yangtze River: Special topic of hydro-archaeology. Culture Relics, 8, 76–90, 103104.

    • Search Google Scholar
  • Yi, Z. W., 2003: An ancient hydrologic station of the Yangtze: Fuling Rock Fish. Quart. J. Yangtze, 2003, 9196.

  • Yin, S. Y., H. Y. Wang, and D. L. Wang, 2010: Study on historical flood disasters and climate change in the upper reach of the Hanjiang River. Ganhanqu Yanjiu, 27, 522528.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, D. D., C. Y. Jim, G. C.-S. Lin, Y.-Q. He, J. J. Wang, and H. F. Lee, 2006: Climatic change, wars and dynastic cycles in China over the last millennium. Climatic Change, 76, 459477, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-005-9024-z.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, H., and et al. , 2012: Simulation of direct radiative forcing of aerosols and their effects on East Asian climate using an interactive AGCM-aerosol coupled system. Climate Dyn ., 38, 16751693, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-011-1131-0.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, Q., and et al. , 2011: Classification of meteorological drought. China Stand ., 5, 5255.

  • Zhang, Z. Y., 1992: Stone tablets in water: Achieves of rock inscriptions at Baiheliang, Fuling. Sichuan Arch. ,1992, 43.

  • Zheng, J., L. Xiao, X. Fang, Z. Hao, Q. Ge, and B. Li, 2014: How climate change impacted the collapse of the Ming dynasty. Climatic Change, 127, 169182, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1244-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, X., P. Zhao, L. Ge, and T. Zhou, 2011: Characteristics of decadal-centennial-scale changes in East Asian summer monsoon circulation and precipitation during the medieval warm period and little ice age and in the present day. Chin. Sci. Bull., 56, 3003, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11434-011-4651-4.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zou, X. K., G. Ren, and Q. Zhang, 2010: Drought variation in China based on a compound index of meteorological drought. Climatic Environ. Res., 15, 371378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 225 225 33
PDF Downloads 126 126 25

Severe Historical Droughts Carved on Rock in the Yangtze

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Atmospheric Science, School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China
  • | 2 Department of Atmospheric Science, School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, and Laboratory for Climate Studies, National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing, China
  • | 3 Hubei Meteorological Service Center, Wuhan, China
  • | 4 Center for Chinese Historical Geographical Studies, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
  • | 5 Laboratory for Climate Studies, National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing, China
  • | 6 Department of Atmospheric Science, School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

The White Crane Ridge (WCR) Rock Fish, now submerged under the backwater of the Three Gorges Reservoir in the Yangtze River, are affirmed as one of the earliest hydrologic observations ever made in any large river in the world. The usually in-water monument provides highly valuable historical records of severe droughts in the upper Yangtze over the last 1,200 years. This article updated the historical drought chronology previously developed based on the WCR inscriptions, which can be applied in assessment of extreme climatic and hydrological risks, and also made a preliminary analysis of changes of the severe drought frequency during the last thousand years in the upper Yangtze. The analysis shows that the severe droughts occurred more frequently during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), relatively less so during the Little Ice Age (LIA), and once again more often under the background of modern global warming. It was suggested that a generally warmer Euro-Asian continent during the MCA was in favor of the stronger East Asian summer monsoon, and the resulting less precipitation and more severe droughts of the Yangtze and the lower water level at the Three Gorges area on the centennial scale, and vice versa for the period of the LIA. The results would help in understanding the causes and mechanisms of the regional climate change and variability, and also in taking measures in the fields of the watershed management to cope with the long-term change in climatic and hydrologic droughts.

© 2020 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy.

Corresponding author: Guoyu Ren, guoyoo@cma.gov.cn

Abstract

The White Crane Ridge (WCR) Rock Fish, now submerged under the backwater of the Three Gorges Reservoir in the Yangtze River, are affirmed as one of the earliest hydrologic observations ever made in any large river in the world. The usually in-water monument provides highly valuable historical records of severe droughts in the upper Yangtze over the last 1,200 years. This article updated the historical drought chronology previously developed based on the WCR inscriptions, which can be applied in assessment of extreme climatic and hydrological risks, and also made a preliminary analysis of changes of the severe drought frequency during the last thousand years in the upper Yangtze. The analysis shows that the severe droughts occurred more frequently during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), relatively less so during the Little Ice Age (LIA), and once again more often under the background of modern global warming. It was suggested that a generally warmer Euro-Asian continent during the MCA was in favor of the stronger East Asian summer monsoon, and the resulting less precipitation and more severe droughts of the Yangtze and the lower water level at the Three Gorges area on the centennial scale, and vice versa for the period of the LIA. The results would help in understanding the causes and mechanisms of the regional climate change and variability, and also in taking measures in the fields of the watershed management to cope with the long-term change in climatic and hydrologic droughts.

© 2020 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy.

Corresponding author: Guoyu Ren, guoyoo@cma.gov.cn
Save