• Aljomaa, S. S., M. F. A. Qudah, I. S. Albursan, S. F. Bakhiet, and A. S. Abduljabbar, 2016: Smartphone addiction among university students in the light of some variables. Comput. Hum. Behav., 61, 155164, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.041.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andrey, J., B. Mills, M. Leahy, and J. Suggett, 2003: Weather as a chronic hazard for road transportation in Canadian cities. Nat. Hazards, 28, 319343, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022934225431.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Andrić, J., M. R. Kumjian, D. S. Zrnić, J. M. Straka, and V. M. Melnikov, 2013: Polarimetric signatures above the melting layer in winter storms: An observational and modeling study. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 52, 682700, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-12-028.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bailey, M., and J. Hallett, 2009: A comprehensive habit diagram for atmospheric ice crystals: Confirmation from the laboratory, AIRS II, and other field studies. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 28882899, https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JAS2883.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bell, M. M., and Coauthors, 2015: The Hawaiian Educational Radar Opportunity (HERO). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 96, 21672181, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00126.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Black, A. W., and T. L. Mote, 2015a: Characteristics of winter-precipitation-related transportation fatalities in the United States. Wea. Climate Soc., 7, 133145, https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-14-00011.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Black, A. W., and T. L. Mote, 2015b: Effects of winter precipitation on automobile collisions, injuries, and fatalities in the United States. J. Transp. Geogr., 48, 165175, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2015.09.007.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, R. D., T. D. Sikora, B. J. Billings, P. Markowski, K. J. Davis, M. A. Miller, B. B. Demoz, and Z. Zhang, 2019: A multi-institution collaborative: Student experience in airborne research in the mid-Atlantic region (SEAR-MAR). Special Symp. on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, Phoenix, AZ, Amer. Meteor. Soc., P811, https://ams.confex.com/ams/2019Annual/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/351819.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gauss, C. F., 1876: Besprechung des Buchs von L. A. Seeber: Untersuchungen über die Eigenschaften der positiven ternaren quadratischen Formen usw. Werke, 2, 188196.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Giangrande, S. E., T. Toto, A. Bansemer, M. R. Kumjian, S. Mishra, and A. V. Ryzhkov, 2016: Insights into riming and aggregation processes as revealed by aircraft, radar, and disdrometer observations for a 27 April 2011 widespread precipitation event. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 58465863, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD024537.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harrington, J. Y., K. J. Sulia, and H. Morrison, 2013: A method for adaptive habit prediction in bulk microphysical models. Part I: Theoretical development. J. Atmos. Sci., 70, 349364, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-12-040.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kennedy, P. C., and S. A. Rutledge, 2011: S-band dual-polarization radar observations of winter storms. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 50, 844858, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JAMC2558.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khu, G. D., and C. G. Schneider, 2008: High-impact educational practices: What they are, who has access to them, and why they matter. Association of American Colleges and Universities Rep., 35 pp.

  • Kilgo, C. A., J. K. E. Sheets, E. T. Pascarella, 2015: The link between high-impact practices and student learning: Some longitudinal evidence. Higher Educ ., 69, 509525, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-014-9788-z.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kumjian, M. R., 2013a: Principles and applications of dual-polarization weather radar. Part I: Description of the polarimetric radar variables. J. Oper. Meteor., 1, 226242, https://doi.org/10.15191/nwajom.2013.0119.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kumjian, M. R., 2013b: Principles and applications of dual-polarization weather radar. Part II: Warm and cold season applications. J. Oper. Meteor., 1, 243264, https://doi.org/10.15191/nwajom.2013.0120.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kumjian, M. R., 2013c: Principles and applications of dual-polarization weather radar. Part III: Artifacts. J. Oper. Meteor., 1, 265274, https://doi.org/10.15191/nwajom.2013.0121.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kumjian, M. R., 2018: Weather radars. Remote Sensing of Clouds and Precipitation, C. Andronache, Ed., Springer, 15–63.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kumjian, M. R., and K. A. Lombardo, 2017: Insights into the evolving microphysical and kinematic structure of northeastern U.S. winter storms from dual-polarization Doppler radar. Mon. Wea. Rev., 145, 10331061, https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-15-0451.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kumjian, M. R., A. V. Ryzhkov, H. D. Reeves, and T. J. Schuur, 2013: A dual-polarization radar signature of hydrometeor refreezing in winter storms. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 52, 25492566, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-12-0311.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kumjian, M. R., S. Mishra, S. E. Giangrande, T. Toto, A. V. Ryzhkov, and A. Bansemer, 2016: Polarimetric radar and aircraft observations of saggy bright bands during MC3E. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 35843607, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD024446.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lamb, D., and J. Verlinde, 2011: Physics and Chemistry of Clouds. 1st ed. Cambridge University Press, 584 pp.

  • Maahn, M., and P. Kollias, 2012: Improved micro rain radar snow measurements using Doppler spectra post-processing. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 26612673, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-5-2661-2012.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Markowski, P. M., Y. P. Richardson, S. Ruchardson, and A. Petersson, 2018: Aboveground thermodynamic observations in convective storms from balloonborne probes acting as pseudo-Lagrangian drifters. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 99, 711724, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-17-0204.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Milrad, S. M., and C. G. Herbster, 2017: Mobile radar as an undergraduate education and research tool: The ERAU C-BREESE field experience with the Doppler on wheels. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 98, 19311948, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00281.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moisseev, D. N., S. Lautaportti, J. Tyynela, and S. Lim, 2015: Dual-polarization radar signatures in snowstorms: Role of snowflake aggregation. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 12 64412 655, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JD023884.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NWS, 2013: Snow measurement guidelines for National Weather Service surface observing programs. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Tech. Rep., 14 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Panova, T., and X. Carbonell, 2018: Is smartphone addiction really an addiction? J. Behav. Addict ., 7, 252259, https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.49.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Picca, J. C., D. M. Schultz, B. Colle, S. Ganetis, D. R. Novak, and M. J. Sienkiewicz, 2014: The value of dual-polarization radar in diagnosing the complex microphysical evolution of an intense snowband. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95, 18251834, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00258.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richardson, Y., P. Markowski, J. Verlinde, and J. Wurman, 2008: Integrating classroom learning and research: The Pennsylvania Area Mobile Radar Experiment (PAMREX). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 89, 10971101, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007BAMS2567.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roebber, P. J., S. L. Bruening, D. M. Schultz, and J. V. Cortinas, 2003: Improving snowfall forecasting by diagnosing snow density. Wea. Forecasting, 18, 264287, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2003)018<0264:ISFBDS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryzhkov, A. V., T. J. Schuur, D. W. Burgess, P. L. Heinselman, S. E. Giangrande, and D. S. Zrnić, 2005: The joint polarization experiment: Polarimetric rainfall measurements and hydrometeor classification. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86, 809824, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-86-6-809.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ryzhkov, A. V., P. Zhang, H. D. Reeves, M. R. Kumjian, T. Tschallener, S. Trömel, and C. Simmer, 2016: Quasi-vertical profiles: A new way to look at polarimetric radar data. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 33, 551562, https://doi.org/10.1175/JTECH-D-15-0020.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schneebeli, M., N. Dawes, M. Lehning, and A. Berne, 2013: High-resolution vertical profiles of X-band polarimetric radar observables during snowfall in the Swiss Alps. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 52, 378394, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-12-015.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schrom, R. S., and M. R. Kumjian, 2016: Connecting microphysical processes in Colorado winter storms with vertical profiles of radar observations. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 55, 17711787, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-15-0338.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schrom, R. S., M. R. Kumjian, and Y. Lu, 2015: Polarimetric radar signatures of dendritic growth zones within Colorado winter storms. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 54, 23652388, https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-15-0004.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sinclair, V. A., D. Moisseev, and A. von Lerber, 2016: How dual-polarization radar observations can be used to verify model representation of secondary ice. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 10 95410 970, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JD025381.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tobin, D. M., M. R. Kumjian, and A. W. Black, 2019: Characteristics of recent vehicle-related fatalities during active precipitation in the United States. Wea. Climate Soc., 11, 935952, https://doi.org/10.1175/WCAS-D-18-0110.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Toth, M., E. Jones, D. Pittman, and D. Solomon, 2011: DOW radar observations of wind farms. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, 987995, https://doi.org/10.1175/2011BAMS3068.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zrnić, D. S., and A. V. Ryzhkov, 1999: Polarimetry for weather surveillance radars. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80, 389406, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<0389:PFWSR>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 205 205 40
PDF Downloads 1650 1650 38

Snowflake Selfies: A Low-Cost, High-Impact Approach toward Student Engagement in Scientific Research (with Their Smartphones)

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania
  • | 2 Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming
  • | 3 School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Stony Brook University, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

An engaged scholarship project called “Snowflake Selfies” was developed and implemented in an upper-level undergraduate course at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State). During the project, students conducted research on snow using low-cost, low-tech instrumentation that may be readily implemented broadly and scaled as needed, particularly at institutions with limited resources. During intensive observing periods (IOPs), students measured snowfall accumulations, snow-to-liquid ratios, and took microscopic photographs of snow using their smartphones. These observations were placed in meteorological context using radar observations and thermodynamic soundings, helping to reinforce concepts from atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud physics, radar, and mesoscale meteorology courses. Students also prepared a term paper and presentation using their datasets/photographs to hone communication skills. Examples from IOPs are presented. The Snowflake Selfies project was well received by undergraduate students as part of the writing-intensive course at Penn State. Responses to survey questions highlight the project’s effectiveness at engaging students and increasing their enthusiasm for the semester-long project. The natural link to social media broadened engagement to the community level. Given the successes at Penn State, we encourage Snowflake Selfies or similar projects to be adapted or implemented at other institutions.

Corresponding author: Matthew R. Kumjian, kumjian@psu.edu

Abstract

An engaged scholarship project called “Snowflake Selfies” was developed and implemented in an upper-level undergraduate course at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State). During the project, students conducted research on snow using low-cost, low-tech instrumentation that may be readily implemented broadly and scaled as needed, particularly at institutions with limited resources. During intensive observing periods (IOPs), students measured snowfall accumulations, snow-to-liquid ratios, and took microscopic photographs of snow using their smartphones. These observations were placed in meteorological context using radar observations and thermodynamic soundings, helping to reinforce concepts from atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud physics, radar, and mesoscale meteorology courses. Students also prepared a term paper and presentation using their datasets/photographs to hone communication skills. Examples from IOPs are presented. The Snowflake Selfies project was well received by undergraduate students as part of the writing-intensive course at Penn State. Responses to survey questions highlight the project’s effectiveness at engaging students and increasing their enthusiasm for the semester-long project. The natural link to social media broadened engagement to the community level. Given the successes at Penn State, we encourage Snowflake Selfies or similar projects to be adapted or implemented at other institutions.

Corresponding author: Matthew R. Kumjian, kumjian@psu.edu
Save