Leveraging Field-Campaign Networks to Identify Sexual Harassment in Atmospheric Science and Pilot Promising Interventions

Emily V. Fischer Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado

Search for other papers by Emily V. Fischer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Brittany Bloodhart Department of Psychology, California State University, San Bernardino, San Bernardino, California

Search for other papers by Brittany Bloodhart in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Kristen Rasmussen Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado

Search for other papers by Kristen Rasmussen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Ilana B. Pollack Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado

Search for other papers by Ilana B. Pollack in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Meredith G. Hastings Department of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island

Search for other papers by Meredith G. Hastings in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Erika Marin-Spiotta Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin

Search for other papers by Erika Marin-Spiotta in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Ankur R. Desai Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin

Search for other papers by Ankur R. Desai in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Joshua P. Schwarz NOAA/Chemical Sciences Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado

Search for other papers by Joshua P. Schwarz in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Stephen Nesbitt Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, Illinois

Search for other papers by Stephen Nesbitt in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Deanna Hence Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, Illinois

Search for other papers by Deanna Hence in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

Sexual harassment in field settings brings unique challenges for prevention and response, as field research occurs outside “typical” workplaces, often in remote locations that create additional safety concerns and new team dynamics. We report on a project that has 1) trained field project participants to recognize, report, and confront sexual harassment, and 2) investigated the perceptions, attitudes, and experiences of field researchers regarding sexual harassment. Precampaign surveys from four major, multi-institutional, domestic, and international field projects indicate that the majority of sexual harassment reported prior to the field campaigns was hostile work environment harassment, and women were more likely to be the recipients, on average reporting two to three incidents each. The majority of those disclosing harassment indicated that they coped with past experiences by avoiding their harasser or downplaying incidents. Of the incidences reported (47) in postcampaign surveys of the four field teams, all fell under the category of hostile work environment and included incidents of verbal, visual, and physical harassment. Women’s harassment experiences were perpetrated by men 100% of the time, and the majority of the perpetrators were in more senior positions than the victims. Men’s harassment experiences were perpetrated by a mix of women and men, and the majority came from those at the same position of seniority. Postproject surveys indicate that the training programs (taking place before the field projects) helped participants come away with more positive than negative emotions and perceptions of the training, the leadership, and their overall experiences on the field campaign.

© 2021 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Emily V. Fischer, evf@atmos.colostate.edu

Abstract

Sexual harassment in field settings brings unique challenges for prevention and response, as field research occurs outside “typical” workplaces, often in remote locations that create additional safety concerns and new team dynamics. We report on a project that has 1) trained field project participants to recognize, report, and confront sexual harassment, and 2) investigated the perceptions, attitudes, and experiences of field researchers regarding sexual harassment. Precampaign surveys from four major, multi-institutional, domestic, and international field projects indicate that the majority of sexual harassment reported prior to the field campaigns was hostile work environment harassment, and women were more likely to be the recipients, on average reporting two to three incidents each. The majority of those disclosing harassment indicated that they coped with past experiences by avoiding their harasser or downplaying incidents. Of the incidences reported (47) in postcampaign surveys of the four field teams, all fell under the category of hostile work environment and included incidents of verbal, visual, and physical harassment. Women’s harassment experiences were perpetrated by men 100% of the time, and the majority of the perpetrators were in more senior positions than the victims. Men’s harassment experiences were perpetrated by a mix of women and men, and the majority came from those at the same position of seniority. Postproject surveys indicate that the training programs (taking place before the field projects) helped participants come away with more positive than negative emotions and perceptions of the training, the leadership, and their overall experiences on the field campaign.

© 2021 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Emily V. Fischer, evf@atmos.colostate.edu

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplemental Materials (PDF 916 KB)
Save
  • ADVANCEGeo, 2020: ADVANCEGeo Partnership: Empowering geoscientists to transform workplace climate. Accessed 8 October 2020, https://serc.carleton.edu/advancegeo/index.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Antecol, H., and D. Cobb-Clark, 2001: Men, women, and sexual harassment in the US military. Gender Issues, 19, 318, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12147-001-0001-1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bear, J. B., and A. W. Woolley, 2011: The role of gender in team collaboration and performance. Interdiscip. Sci. Rev., 36, 146153, https://doi.org/10.1179/030801811X13013181961473.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beltran, R. S., E. Marnocha, A. Race, D. A. Croll, G. H. Dayton, and E. S. Zavaleta, 2020: Field courses narrow demographic achievement gaps in ecology and evolutionary biology. Ecol. Evol., 10, 51845196, https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bergman, M. E., R. D. Langhout, P. A. Palmieri, L. M. Cortina, and L. F. Fitzgerald, 2002: The (un)reasonableness of reporting: Antecedents and consequences of reporting sexual harassment. J. Appl. Psychol., 87, 230242, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.2.230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berkowitz, A. D., 1994: Men and Rape: Theory, Research and Prevention Programs in Higher Education. Jossey-Bass, 91 pp.

  • Bernard, R. E., and E. H. G. Cooperdock, 2018: No progress on diversity in 40 years. Nat. Geosci., 11, 292295, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0116-6.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bingham, S. G., and L. L. Scherer, 2001: The unexpected effects of a sexual harassment educational program. J. Appl. Behav. Sci., 37, 125153, https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886301372001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bondestam, F., and M. Lundqvist, 2020: Sexual harassment in higher education—A systematic review. Eur. J. Higher Educ., 10, 397419, https://doi.org/10.1080/21568235.2020.1729833.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell, L. G., S. Mehtani, M. E. Dozier, and J. Rinehart, 2013: Gender-heterogeneous working groups produce higher quality science. PLOS ONE, 8, e79147, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Center for Organizational Design, 2020: The Center for Organizational Design. Accessed 11 November 2020, http://www.centerod.com.

  • Chan, D. K. S., S. Y. Chow, C. B. Lam, and S. F. Cheung, 2008: Examining the job-related, psychological, and physical outcomes of workplace sexual harassment: A meta-analytic review. Psychol. Women Quart., 32, 362376, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2008.00451.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clancy, K. B. H., R. G. Nelson, J. N. Rutherford, and K. Hinde, 2014: Survey of Academic Field Experiences (SAFE): Trainees report harassment and assault. PLOS ONE, 9, e102172, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102172.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clancy, K. B. H., L. M. Cortina, and A. R. Kirkland, 2020: Use science to stop sexual harassment in higher education. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 117, 2261422618,https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2016164117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crosby, F., 1984: The denial of personal discrimination. Amer. Behav. Sci., 27, 371386, https://doi.org/10.1177/000276484027003008.

  • Dahlberg, K., H. Dahlberg, and M. Nyström, 2008: Reflective Lifeworld Research. Studentlitteratur, 372 pp.

  • Evans, C., and Coauthors, 2012: The Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud-Systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) field campaign: Perspectives of early career scientists. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 173187, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00024.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Funk, C., and K. Parker, 2018: Women and men in STEM often at odds over workplace equity. Pew Research Center Rep., 158 pp.

  • Hanson, R., and P. Richards, 2019: Harassed: Gender, Bodies, and Ethnographic Research. University of California Press, 240 pp.

  • Jenkins, G. S., and A. T. Gaye, 2010: PARTNERSHIPS: Increasing research opportunities in the atmospheric sciences for underrepresented groups through international field experiences in Senegal. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 845852, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010BAMS2869.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koss, M. P., 1985: The hidden rape victim: Personality, attitudinal, and situational characteristics. Psychol. Women Quart., 9, 193212, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1985.tb00872.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Magley, V. J., C. L. Hulin, L. G. Fitzgerald, and M. DeNardo, 1999: Outcomes of self-labeling sexual harassment. J. Appl. Psychol., 84, 390402, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.84.3.390.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marín-Spiotta, E., R. T. Barnes, A. A. Berhe, M. G. Hastings, A. Mattheis, B. Schneider, and B. M. Williams, 2020a: Hostile climates are barriers to diversifying the geosciences. Adv. Geosci., 53, 117127, https://doi.org/10.5194/adgeo-53-117-2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marín-Spiotta, E., and Coauthors, 2020b: A critical feminist approach to transforming workplace climate in the geosciences through community engagement and partnerships with societies. ADVANCE J., in press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mohrman, S. A., R. V. Tenkasi, and A. M. Mohrman, 2003: The role of networks in fundamental organizational change: A grounded analysis. J. Appl. Behav. Sci., 39, 301323, https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886303258072.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morris, V. R., E. Joseph, S. Smith, and T. Yu, 2012: The Howard University Program in Atmospheric Sciences (HUPAS): A program exemplifying diversity and opportunity. J. Geosci. Educ., 60, 4553, https://doi.org/10.5408/10-180.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2018: Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. National Academies Press, 312 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2020: Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. National Academies Press, 234 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NCAR/ UCAR, 2020a: The Chequamegon Heterogeneous Ecosystem Energy-balance Study Enabled by a High-density Extensive Array of Detectors (CHEESEHEAD). Accessed 8 October 2020, www.eol.ucar.edu/field_projects/cheesehead.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NCAR/ UCAR, 2020b: Remote Sensing of Electrification, Lightning, and Mesoscale/Microscale processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO). Accessed 8 October 2020, www.eol.ucar.edu/field_projects/relampago.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NCAR/ UCAR, 2020c: Western Wildfire Experiment for Cloud Chemistry, Aerosol Absorption and Nitrogen (WE-CAN). Accessed 8 October 2020, www.eol.ucar.edu/field_projects/we-can.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nelson, R. G., J. N. Rutherford, K. Hinde, and K. B. H. Clancy, 2017: Signaling safety: Characterizing fieldwork experiences and their implications for career trajectories. Amer. Anthropol., 119, 710722, https://doi.org/10.1111/aman.12929.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NOAA–NASA, 2020: Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality (FIREX-AQ). Accessed 8 October 2020, www.esrl.noaa.gov/csl/projects/firex-aq/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peterson, Z. D., and C. L. Muehlenhard, 2004: Was it rape? The function of women’s rape myth acceptance and definitions of sex in labeling their own experiences. Sex Roles, 51, 129144, https://doi.org/10.1023/B:SERS.0000037758.95376.00.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pickrell, J., 2020: Scientists push against barriers to diversity in the field sciences. Science, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.caredit.abb6887.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Quick, J. C., and M. A. McFadyen, 2017: Sexual harassment: Have we made any progress? J. Occup. Health Psychol., 22, 286298, https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000054.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rasmussen, K. L., M. A. Burt, A. Rowe, R. Haacker, D. Hence, L. Medina Luna, S. W. Nesbitt, and J. Maertens, 2021: Enlightenment strikes! Broadening graduate school training through field campaign participation. 102, E1987E2001, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-20-0062.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rauber, R. M., and Coauthors, 2007: In the driver’s seat: RICO and education. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 19291938, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-88-12-1929.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stockdale, M. S., and A. Vaux, 1993: What sexual harassment experiences lead respondents to acknowledge being sexually harassed? A secondary analysis of a university survey. J. Vocat. Behav., 43, 221234, https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1993.1044.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tinkler, J., S. Gremillion, and K. Arthurs, 2015: Perceptions of legitimacy: The sex of the legal messenger and reactions to sexual harassment training. Law Soc. Inq., 40, 152174, https://doi.org/10.1111/lsi.12065.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wadman, M., 2017: Disturbing allegations of sexual harassment in Antarctica leveled at noted scientist. Science, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaq1428.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walsh, B. M., and V. J. Magley, 2019: Don’t forget the role of civility interventions in workplace sexual harassment. Ind. Organ. Psychol., 12, 3941, https://doi.org/10.1017/iop.2019.5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willness, C. R., P. Steel, and K. Lee, 2007: A meta-analysis of the antecedents and consequences of workplace sexual harassment. Pers. Psychol., 60, 127162, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2007.00067.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, C. E., 2020: Percentage of female faculty working within geoscience research fields. American Geosciences Institute Rep., 1 p., www.americangeosciences.org/sites/default/files/currents/Currents-136-WomenResearchFields.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yarbrough Group, 2020: Yarbrough Group. Accessed 8 October 2020, www.yarbgroup.com/.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 18 0 0
Full Text Views 4273 1306 262
PDF Downloads 2640 558 229