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The SALTENA Experiment: Comprehensive Observations of Aerosol Sources, Formation, and Processes in the South American Andes

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  • 1 Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research, and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland;
  • | 2 Institute for Ion and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, and Ionicon Analytik Ges.m.b.H., Innsbruck, Austria;
  • | 3 Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden;
  • | 4 Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research, and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland;
  • | 5 Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, Switzerland;
  • | 6 Institute for Ion and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria;
  • | 7 Laboratory for Atmospheric Physics, Institute for Physics Research, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz, Bolivia;
  • | 8 Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden;
  • | 9 Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research, and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland;
  • | 10 Laboratory for Atmospheric Physics, Institute for Physics Research, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz, Bolivia;
  • | 11 Institute for Ion and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, and Ionicon Analytik Ges.m.b.H., Innsbruck, Austria;
  • | 12 Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research, and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland;
  • | 13 Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Italian National Research Council, Bologna, Italy;
  • | 14 Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research, and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland;
  • | 15 Laboratory for Atmospheric Physics, Institute for Physics Research, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz, Bolivia;
  • | 16 University of Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IRD, Grenoble-INP, IGE (UMR 5001), Grenoble, France;
  • | 17 Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Italian National Research Council, Bologna, Italy;
  • | 18 Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, and Institute of Polar Sciences, Italian National Research Council, Bologna, Italy;
  • | 19 Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, Switzerland;
  • | 20 Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research, and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland;
  • | 21 Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research, and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland;
  • | 22 Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Italian National Research Council, Bologna, Italy;
  • | 23 Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany;
  • | 24 Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique, Clermont-Ferrand, France;
  • | 25 Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research, and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, and Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts;
  • | 26 Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil;
  • | 27 Institute for Ion and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria;
  • | 28 Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research, and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Aerosol and Haze Laboratory, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, and Joint International Research Laboratory of Atmospheric and Earth System Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China;
  • | 29 Experimental Aerosol and Cloud Microphysics, Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig, Germany;
  • | 30 Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research, and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, and University of Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IRD, Grenoble-INP, IGE (UMR 5001), Grenoble, France;
  • | 31 Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden;
  • | 32 Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Brazil;
  • | 33 Laboratory for Atmospheric Physics, Institute for Physics Research, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz, Bolivia, and Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park,College Park, Maryland
  • | 34 Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden;
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Abstract

This paper presents an introduction to the Southern Hemisphere High Altitude Experiment on Particle Nucleation and Growth (SALTENA). This field campaign took place between December 2017 and June 2018 (wet to dry season) at Chacaltaya (CHC), a GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) station located at 5,240 m MSL in the Bolivian Andes. Concurrent measurements were conducted at two additional sites in El Alto (4,000 m MSL) and La Paz (3,600 m MSL). The overall goal of the campaign was to identify the sources, understand the formation mechanisms and transport, and characterize the properties of aerosol at these stations. State-of-the-art instruments were brought to the station complementing the ongoing permanent GAW measurements, to allow a comprehensive description of the chemical species of anthropogenic and biogenic origin impacting the station and contributing to new particle formation. In this overview we first provide an assessment of the complex meteorology, airmass origin, and boundary layer–free troposphere interactions during the campaign using a 6-month high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulation coupled with Flexible Particle dispersion model (FLEXPART). We then show some of the research highlights from the campaign, including (i) chemical transformation processes of anthropogenic pollution while the air masses are transported to the CHC station from the metropolitan area of La Paz–El Alto, (ii) volcanic emissions as an important source of atmospheric sulfur compounds in the region, (iii) the characterization of the compounds involved in new particle formation, and (iv) the identification of long-range-transported compounds from the Pacific or the Amazon basin. We conclude the article with a presentation of future research foci. The SALTENA dataset highlights the importance of comprehensive observations in strategic high-altitude locations, especially the undersampled Southern Hemisphere.

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding authors: Federico Bianchi, federico.bianchi@helsinki.fi; Claudia Mohr, claudia.mohr@aces.su.se

Abstract

This paper presents an introduction to the Southern Hemisphere High Altitude Experiment on Particle Nucleation and Growth (SALTENA). This field campaign took place between December 2017 and June 2018 (wet to dry season) at Chacaltaya (CHC), a GAW (Global Atmosphere Watch) station located at 5,240 m MSL in the Bolivian Andes. Concurrent measurements were conducted at two additional sites in El Alto (4,000 m MSL) and La Paz (3,600 m MSL). The overall goal of the campaign was to identify the sources, understand the formation mechanisms and transport, and characterize the properties of aerosol at these stations. State-of-the-art instruments were brought to the station complementing the ongoing permanent GAW measurements, to allow a comprehensive description of the chemical species of anthropogenic and biogenic origin impacting the station and contributing to new particle formation. In this overview we first provide an assessment of the complex meteorology, airmass origin, and boundary layer–free troposphere interactions during the campaign using a 6-month high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulation coupled with Flexible Particle dispersion model (FLEXPART). We then show some of the research highlights from the campaign, including (i) chemical transformation processes of anthropogenic pollution while the air masses are transported to the CHC station from the metropolitan area of La Paz–El Alto, (ii) volcanic emissions as an important source of atmospheric sulfur compounds in the region, (iii) the characterization of the compounds involved in new particle formation, and (iv) the identification of long-range-transported compounds from the Pacific or the Amazon basin. We conclude the article with a presentation of future research foci. The SALTENA dataset highlights the importance of comprehensive observations in strategic high-altitude locations, especially the undersampled Southern Hemisphere.

© 2022 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding authors: Federico Bianchi, federico.bianchi@helsinki.fi; Claudia Mohr, claudia.mohr@aces.su.se
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