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Small Lake Daytime Breezes: Some Observational and Conceptual Evaluations

M. SegalAgricultural Meteorology, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

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M. LeutholdAgricultural Meteorology, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

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R. W. ArrittAgricultural Meteorology, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

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C. AndersonAgricultural Meteorology, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

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J. ShenAgricultural Meteorology, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

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The diversity of small lakes' (size < 50 km) configurations, sizes, surrounding terrain, and land use combined with relative sparsity of observations complicates the observational evaluation of the lake breezes (LB) that are induced by these lakes. In the present article observational data obtained from available documents, data archives, and special projects were surveyed to suggest characterization of the LB features. The observational survey was complemented by conceptual evaluations. A preliminary generalization of the LB intensity and inland penetration in relation to the surrounding land use was inferred. The conceptual evaluation suggested that for a given lake width the prime factor affecting the LB intensity is the magnitude of the surface sensible heat flux over the surrounding land. Cooling related to the lake water temperature was indicated to have usually a secondary effect on the LB intensity for small lakes. Surface observations implied that the onshore penetration of the LB by the early afternoon hours is typically less than the characteristic width of the lake. Lower atmosphere observations indicated that the vertical extent of the LB may reach several hundred meters. Implications of the observed LB features in support of characterization of the real-world vegetation breeze are discussed.

Corresponding author address: Moti Segal, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1010. E-mail: segal@iastate.edu

The diversity of small lakes' (size < 50 km) configurations, sizes, surrounding terrain, and land use combined with relative sparsity of observations complicates the observational evaluation of the lake breezes (LB) that are induced by these lakes. In the present article observational data obtained from available documents, data archives, and special projects were surveyed to suggest characterization of the LB features. The observational survey was complemented by conceptual evaluations. A preliminary generalization of the LB intensity and inland penetration in relation to the surrounding land use was inferred. The conceptual evaluation suggested that for a given lake width the prime factor affecting the LB intensity is the magnitude of the surface sensible heat flux over the surrounding land. Cooling related to the lake water temperature was indicated to have usually a secondary effect on the LB intensity for small lakes. Surface observations implied that the onshore penetration of the LB by the early afternoon hours is typically less than the characteristic width of the lake. Lower atmosphere observations indicated that the vertical extent of the LB may reach several hundred meters. Implications of the observed LB features in support of characterization of the real-world vegetation breeze are discussed.

Corresponding author address: Moti Segal, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1010. E-mail: segal@iastate.edu
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