Aircraft Particle Inlets: State-of-the-Art and Future Needs

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Aircraft inlets connect airborne instruments for particle microphysical and chemical measurements with the ambient atmosphere. These inlets may bias the measurements due to their potential to enhance or remove certain particle size fractions in the sample. The aircraft body itself may disturb the ambient air streamlines and, hence, the particle sampling. Also, anisokinetic sampling and transmission losses within the sampling lines may cause the sampled aerosol to differ from the ambient aerosol. In addition, inlets may change the particle composition and size through the evaporation of water and other volatile materials due to compressibility effects or heat transfer. These problems have been discussed at an international workshop that was held at the Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research (IfT) in Leipzig, Germany, on 12–13 April 2002. The discussions, conclusions, and recommendations from this workshop are summarized here.

Leibniz-lnstitut für Troposphärenforschung, Leipzig, Germany

Physics Department, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico

Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques, Météo-France, Toulouse, France

Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt, Flugbetrieb, Wessling, Germany

Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt, Wessling, Germany

Centre de Geophysics, Universidade de Évora, Évora, Portugal

Institute für Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphäre I: Stratosphäre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany

Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

enviscope GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Centre d'Aviation Météorologique, Météo-France/CNRM, Brétigny-sur-Orge, France

Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

Met Office, Farnborough, United Kingdom

Abteilung Wolkenphysik und -chemie, Max-Planck-lnstitut für Chemie, Mainz, Germany

Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, J. Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz, Germany

Laboratoire de Méteorologie Physique, Université Blaise Pascal, Aubière, France

Department of Engineering, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado

A supplement to this article is available online (DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-85-1-Wendisch)

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Manfred Wendisch, Leibniz-Institut für Troposphärenforschung e.V. (IfT), Permoserstraße 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany, E-mail; wendisch@tropos.de

Aircraft inlets connect airborne instruments for particle microphysical and chemical measurements with the ambient atmosphere. These inlets may bias the measurements due to their potential to enhance or remove certain particle size fractions in the sample. The aircraft body itself may disturb the ambient air streamlines and, hence, the particle sampling. Also, anisokinetic sampling and transmission losses within the sampling lines may cause the sampled aerosol to differ from the ambient aerosol. In addition, inlets may change the particle composition and size through the evaporation of water and other volatile materials due to compressibility effects or heat transfer. These problems have been discussed at an international workshop that was held at the Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research (IfT) in Leipzig, Germany, on 12–13 April 2002. The discussions, conclusions, and recommendations from this workshop are summarized here.

Leibniz-lnstitut für Troposphärenforschung, Leipzig, Germany

Physics Department, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico

Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques, Météo-France, Toulouse, France

Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt, Flugbetrieb, Wessling, Germany

Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt, Wessling, Germany

Centre de Geophysics, Universidade de Évora, Évora, Portugal

Institute für Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphäre I: Stratosphäre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany

Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

enviscope GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Centre d'Aviation Météorologique, Météo-France/CNRM, Brétigny-sur-Orge, France

Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

Met Office, Farnborough, United Kingdom

Abteilung Wolkenphysik und -chemie, Max-Planck-lnstitut für Chemie, Mainz, Germany

Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, J. Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz, Germany

Laboratoire de Méteorologie Physique, Université Blaise Pascal, Aubière, France

Department of Engineering, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado

A supplement to this article is available online (DOI: 10.1175/BAMS-85-1-Wendisch)

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Manfred Wendisch, Leibniz-Institut für Troposphärenforschung e.V. (IfT), Permoserstraße 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany, E-mail; wendisch@tropos.de
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