• Benjamin, S. G., and Coauthors, 2004: An hourly assimilation–forecast cycle: The RUC. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 495518.

  • Burns, A., , T. W. Harrold, , J. Burnham & , and C. S. Spavins, 1966: Turbulence in clear air near thunderstorms. National Severe Storms Laboratory Tech. Memo. 30, 20 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cornman, L. B., , C. S. Morse & , and G. Cunning, 1995: Real-time estimation of atmospheric turbulence severity from in-situ aircraft measurements. J. Aircraft, 32, 171177.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cornman, L. B., , G. Meymaris & , and M. Limber, 2004: An update on the FAA Aviation Weather Research Program's in situ turbulence measurement and report system. Preprints, 11th Conf. on Aviation, Range, and Aerospace Meteorology, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 4.3. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/81622.pdf.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Durran, D. R. & , and J. B. Klemp, 1982: On the effects of moisture on the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 21522158.

  • Eichenbaum, H., 2003: Historical overview of turbulence accidents and case study analysis. MCR Federal Inc. Rep. Br-M021/080–1, 82 pp. [Available from MCR Federal Inc., 175 Middlesex Turnpike, Bedford, MA 01730.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Federal Aviation Administration, 2012: Chapter 7. FAA Aeronautical Information Manual. [Available online at www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/atpubs/aim.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fovell, R. G., , D. R. Durran & , and J. R. Holton, 1992: Numerical simulations of convectively generated stratospheric gravity waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 49, 14271442.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fovell, R. G., , R. D. Sharman & , and S. B. Trier, 2007: A case study of convectively-induced clear-air turbulence. Preprints, 12th Conf. on Mesoscale Processes, Waterville Valley, NH, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 13.4. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/126190.pdf.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fritsch, J. M. & , and R. A. Maddox, 1981: Convectively driven mesoscale weather systems aloft. Part I: Observations. J. Appl. Meteor., 20, 919.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fujita T. & , and H. Grandoso, 1968: Split of a thunderstorm and cyclonic storms and their motion as determined from numerical model experiments. J. Atmos. Sci., 25, 416439.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grabowski, W. W. & , and T. L. Clark, 1991: Cloud–environment interface instability: Rising thermal calculations in two spatial dimensions. J. Atmos. Sci., 48, 527546.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Janjić, Z. I., 1990: The step-mountain coordinate: Physical package. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 14291443.

  • Janjić, Z. I., 1994: The step-mountain Eta coordinate model: Further developments of the convection, viscous sublayer, and turbulent closure schemes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 927945.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaplan, M. L., , A. W. Huffman, , K. M. Lux, , J. J. Charney, , A. J. Riordan & , and Y.-L. Lin, 2005: Characterizing the severe turbulence environments associated with commercial aviation accidents. Part 1: A 44-case study synoptic observational analyses. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 88, 129152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kauffmann, P. & , and A. Sousa-Poza, 2001: Market assessment of forward-looking turbulence sensing systems. NASA Rep. CR-2001-210905, 78 pp. [Available online at http://gltrs.grc.nasa.gov/reports/2001/CR-2001-210905.pdf.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keller, T. L., , L. J. Ehernberger & , and M. G. Wurtele, 1983: Numerical simulation of the atmosphere during a CAT encounter. Proc. Ninth Conf. on Aerospace and Aeronautical Meteorology, Omaha, NE, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 316319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, J.-H. & , and H.-Y. Chun, 2011: Statistics and possible sources of aviation turbulence over South Korea. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 50, 311324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, J.-H. & , and H.-Y. Chun, 2012: A numerical simulation of convectively induced turbulence (CIT) above deep convection. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 51, in press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knox, J. A., , A. S. Bachmeier, , W. M. Carter, , J. E. Tarantino, , L. C. Paulik, , E. N. Wilson, , G. S. Bechdol & , and M. J. Mays, 2010: Transverse cirrus bands in weather systems: A grand tour of an enduring enigma. Weather, 65, 3541.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lane, T. P. & , and R. D. Sharman, 2006: Gravity wave breaking, secondary wave generation, and mixing above deep convection in a three-dimensional cloud model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L23813, doi:10.1029/2006GL027988.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lane, T. P. & , and R. D. Sharman, 2008: Some influences of background flow conditions on the generation of turbulence due to gravity wave breaking above deep convection. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 47, 27772796.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lane, T. P., , R. D. Sharman, , T. L. Clark & , and H.-M. Hsu, 2003: An investigation of turbulence generation mechanisms above deep convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 12971321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lemon, L., 1976: Wake vortex structure and aerodynamic origin in severe thunderstorms. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 678685.

  • LeMone, M. A., 1973: The structure and dynamics of horizontal roll vortices in the planetary boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 30, 10771091.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lenz, A., , K. M. Bedka, , W. F. Feltz & , and S. A. Ackerman, 2009: Convectively induced transverse band signatures in satellite imagery. Wea. Forecasting, 24, 13621373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lester, P. F., 1994: Turbulence: A New Perspective for Pilots. Jeppesen Sanderson, 280 pp.

  • Lin, Y.-L., , R. D. Farley & , and H. D. Orville, 1983: Bulk parameterization of a snow field in a cloud model. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 22, 10651092.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nappo, C. J., 2002: An Introduction to Atmospheric Gravity Waves. Academic Press, 276 pp.

  • National Transportation Safety Board, 1998: Brief of incident, Ftw97Ia261. [Available at 490 L'Enfant Plaza, SW, Washington, DC 20594.]

  • National Transportation Safety Board, 2010: Preliminary report. DCA10IA084. [Available at 490 L'Enfant Plaza, SW, Washington, DC 20594.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Transportation Safety Board, 2011: Brief of incident. DCA09IA071. [Available at 490 L'Enfant Plaza, SW, Washington, DC 20594.]

  • Noh, Y., , W. G. Cheon, , S.-Y. Hong & , and S. Raasch, 2003: Improvement of the k-profile model for the planetary boundary layer based on large eddy simulation data. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 107, 401427.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pandya, R. E. & , and D. R. Durran, 1996: The influence of convectively generated thermal forcing on the mesoscale circulations around squall lines. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 29242951.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pantley, K. C. & , and P. F. Lester, 1990: Observations of severe turbulence near thunderstorm tops. J. Appl. Meteor., 29, 11711179.

  • Pfister, L., , S. Scott, , M. Loewenstein, , S. Bowen & , and M. Legg, 1993: Mesoscale disturbances in the tropical stratosphere excited by convection: Observations and effects on the stratospheric momentum budget. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 10581075.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Piani, C., , D. R. Durran, , M. J. Alexander & , and J. R. Holton, 2000: A numerical study of three-dimensional gravity waves triggered by deep tropical convection and their role in the dynamics of the QBO. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 36893702.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Politovich, M. K., , R. K. Goodrich, , C. S. Morse, , A. Yates, , R. Barron & , and S. A. Cohn, 2011: The Juneau terrain-induced turbulence alert system. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, 299313.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prophet, D. T., 1970: Vertical extent of turbulence in clear air above the tops of thunderstorms. J. Appl. Meteor., 9, 320321.

  • Rotunno, R. & , and J. B. Klemp, 1982: The influence of the shear-induced pressure gradient on thunderstorm motion. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 136151.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schultz, D. M., and Coauthors, 2006: The mysteries of mammatus clouds: observations and formation mechanisms. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 24092435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schwartz, B., 1996: The quantitative use of PIREPs in developing aviation weather guidance products. Wea. Forecasting, 11, 372384.

  • Sharman, R. D. & , and M. G. Wurtele, 1983: Ship waves and lee waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 396427.

  • Sharman, R. D., , C. Tebaldi, , G. Wiener & , and J. Wolff, 2006: An integrated approach to mid- and upper-level turbulence forecasting. Wea. Forecasting, 21, 268287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skamarock, W. C. & , and J. B. Klemp, 2008: A time-split nonhydrostatic atmospheric model for weather research and forecasting applications. J. Comp. Phys., 227, 34653485.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, T. L., , S. G. Benjamin, , J. M. Brown, , S. S. Weygandt, , T. Smirnova & , and B. E. Schwartz, 2008: Convection forecasts from the hourly updated, 3-km High Resolution Rapid Refresh model. Preprints, 24th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Savannah, GA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 11.1. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/142055.pdf.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trier, S. B. & , and R. D. Sharman, 2009: Convection-permitting simulations of the environment supporting widespread turbulence within the upper-level outflow of a mesoscale convective system. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 19721990.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trier, S. B., , R. D. Sharman, , R. G. Fovell & , and R. G. Frehlich, 2010: Numerical simulation of radial cloud bands within the upper-level outflow of an observed mesoscale convective system. J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 29902999.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trier, S. B., , R. D. Sharman & , and T. P. Lane, 2012: Influences of moist convection on a cold-season outbreak of clear-air turbulence (CAT). Mon. Wea. Rev., 140, in press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, P. K., , S.-H. Su, , M. Setvak, , H. Lin & , and R. M. Rabin, 2010: Ship wave signature at the cloud top of deep convective storms. Atmos. Res., 97, 294302.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weckwerth, T. M., , J. W. Wilson, , R. M. Wakimoto & , and N. A. Crook, 1997: Horizontal convective rolls: Determining the environmental conditions supporting their existence and characteristics. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 505526.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wolff, J. K. & , and R. D. Sharman, 2008: Climatology of upper-level turbulence over the contiguous United States. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 47, 21982214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 184 184 38
PDF Downloads 140 140 29

Recent Advances in the Understanding of Near-Cloud Turbulence

View More View Less
  • 1 School of Earth Sciences and ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate System Science, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
  • 2 National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
  • 3 University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California
  • 4 National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Anyone who has flown in a commercial aircraft is familiar with turbulence. Unexpected encounters with turbulence pose a safety risk to airline passengers and crew, can occasionally damage aircraft, and indirectly increase the cost of air travel. Deep convective clouds are one of the most important sources of turbulence. Cloud-induced turbulence can occur both within clouds and in the surrounding clear air. Turbulence associated with but outside of clouds is of particular concern because it is more difficult to discern using standard hazard identification technologies (e.g., satellite and radar) and thus is often the source of unexpected turbulence encounters. Although operational guidelines for avoiding near-cloud turbulence exist, they are in many ways inadequate because they were developed before the governing dynamical processes were understood. Recently, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the dynamics of near-cloud turbulence. Using examples, this article demonstrates how these advances have stemmed from improved turbulence observing and reporting systems, the establishment of archives of turbulence encounters, detailed case studies, and high-resolution numerical simulations. Some of the important phenomena that have recently been identified as contributing to near-cloud turbulence include atmospheric wave breaking, unstable upper-level thunderstorm outflows, shearing instabilities, and cirrus cloud bands. The consequences of these phenomena for developing new en route turbulence avoidance guidelines and forecasting methods are discussed, along with outstanding research questions.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Todd P. Lane, School of Earth Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia, E-mail: tplane@unimelb.edu.au

A supplement to this article is available online (10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00062.2)

Anyone who has flown in a commercial aircraft is familiar with turbulence. Unexpected encounters with turbulence pose a safety risk to airline passengers and crew, can occasionally damage aircraft, and indirectly increase the cost of air travel. Deep convective clouds are one of the most important sources of turbulence. Cloud-induced turbulence can occur both within clouds and in the surrounding clear air. Turbulence associated with but outside of clouds is of particular concern because it is more difficult to discern using standard hazard identification technologies (e.g., satellite and radar) and thus is often the source of unexpected turbulence encounters. Although operational guidelines for avoiding near-cloud turbulence exist, they are in many ways inadequate because they were developed before the governing dynamical processes were understood. Recently, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the dynamics of near-cloud turbulence. Using examples, this article demonstrates how these advances have stemmed from improved turbulence observing and reporting systems, the establishment of archives of turbulence encounters, detailed case studies, and high-resolution numerical simulations. Some of the important phenomena that have recently been identified as contributing to near-cloud turbulence include atmospheric wave breaking, unstable upper-level thunderstorm outflows, shearing instabilities, and cirrus cloud bands. The consequences of these phenomena for developing new en route turbulence avoidance guidelines and forecasting methods are discussed, along with outstanding research questions.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Todd P. Lane, School of Earth Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia, E-mail: tplane@unimelb.edu.au

A supplement to this article is available online (10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00062.2)

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplemental Materials (PDF 4.50 MB)
Save