• Alter, J. C., 1937: Shielded storage precipitation gauges. Mon. Wea. Rev., 65, 262265.

  • Brandes, E., K. Ikeda, G. Zhang, M. Schönhuber, and R. M. Rasmussen, 2007: A statistical and physical description of hydrometeor distributions in Colorado snow storms using a video disdrometer. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 46, 634650.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell Scientific, Inc., cited 2010: SR50A sonic ranging sensor. [Available online at www.campbellsci.ca/Catalogue/SR50A_Man.pdf.]

  • Desilets, D., M. Zreda, and T. P. A. Ferré, 2010: Nature's neutron probe: Land surface hydrology at an elusive scale with cosmic rays. Water Resour. Res., 46, W11505, doi:10.1029/2009WR008726.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Erickson, T., M. W. Williams, and A. Winstral, 2005: Persistence of topographic controls on the spatial distribution of snow depth in rugged mountain terrain, Colorado, United States. Water Resour. Res., 41, W04014, doi:10.1029/2003WR002973.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fischer, A. P., 2011: The measurement factors in estimating snowfall derived from snow cover surfaces using acoustic snow depth sensors. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 50, 681699.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Golubev, V. S., 1989: Assessment of accuracy characteristics of the reference precipitation gauge with a double-fence shelter. Final Report of the Fourth Session of the International Organizing Committee for the WMO Solid Precipitation Measurement Intercomparison, 22–29.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodison, B. E., 1978: Accuracy of Canadian snow gage measurements. J. Appl. Meteor., 17, 15421548.

  • Goodison, B. E., and D. Yang, 1996: In-situ measurements of solid precipitation in high latitudes: The need for correction. Proceedings of the Workshop on the ACSYS Solid Precipitation Climatology Project, WMO/TD-739, WCRP-93, 3–17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodison, B. E, J. R. Metcalfe, and R. A. Wilson, 1988: Development and performance of a Canadian automatic snow depth sensor. WMO Instruments and Observing Methods Rep. 33, 317320.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodison, B. E, P. Y. T. Louie, and D. Yang, 1998: WMO solid precipitation measurement intercomparison. WMO Instruments and Observing Methods Rep. 67, WMO/TD-872, 212 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Groisman, P. Ya., and D. R. Legates, 1994: The accuracy of United States precipitation data. Bull. Amer. Meteor Soc., 75, 215227.

  • Gultepe, I., and J. A. Milbrandt, 2010: Probabilistic parameterizations of visibility using observations of rain precipitation rate, relative humidity, and visibility. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 49, 3646.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, M. E., and E. May, 2004: Inlet heater for USCRN weighing precipitation gauge. NOAA Tech. Note NCDC USCRN-04-01, 10 pp. [Available at www.ncdc.noaa.gov/crn/docs.html.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contirbution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, 996 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jenoptik, cited 2012: Snow depth sensor SHM 30: A compact laser senor for determining snow depths. [Available online at www.weatherlife.co.kr/catalog/shm_30_en_web.pdf.]

  • Larson, K. M., E. E. Small, E. D. Gutmann, A. L. Bilich, J. J. Braun, and V. U. Zavorotny, 2008: Use of GPS receivers as a soil moisture network for water cycle studies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L24405, doi:10.1029/2008GL036013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Larson, K. M, E. D. Gutmann, V. U. Zavorotny, J. J. Braun, M. W. Williams, and F. G. Nievinski, 2009: Can we measure snow depth with GPS receivers? Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L17502, doi:10.1029/2009GL039430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Larson, L. W., 1993: ASOS heated tipping bucket precipitation gage (FRIEZ) evaluation at WSFO, Bismarck, North Dakota, March 1992–March 1993. NWS Central Region Final Rep., 54 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McKee, T. B., N. J. Doesken, C. A. Davey, and R. A. Pielke, Sr., 2000: Climate data continuity with ASOS: Report for period April 1996 through June 2000. Climatology Rep. 00–3, Colorado Climate Center, Colorado State University, 82 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Metcalfe, J. R., and B. E. Goodison, 1993: Correction of Canadian winter precipitation data. Proc. Eighth Symp. on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, Anaheim, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 338343.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nitu, R., and K. Wong, 2010: CIMO survey on national summaries of methods and instruments for solid precipitation measurement at automatic weather stations. WMO Instruments and Observing Methods Rep. 102, WMO/TD-1544, 57 pp. [Available online at www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/IMOP/publications/IOM-102_SolidPrecip.pdf.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rasmussen, R. M., J. Vivekanandan, J. Cole, B. Myers, and C. Masters, 1999: The estimation of snowfall rate using visibility. J. Appl. Meteor., 38, 15421563.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rasmussen, R. M., J. Cole, K. R. K. Moore, and M. Kuperman, 2000: Common snowfall conditions associated with aircraft takeoff accidents. J. Aircraft, 37, 110116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rasmussen, R. M., and Coauthors, 2001: Weather support to deicing decision making (WSDDM): A winter weather nowcasting system. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82, 579595.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rasmussen, R.M., J. Hallett, R. Purcell, and S. Landolt, and J. Cole, 2011: The hotplate precipitation gauge. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 28, 148164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sevruk, B., and S. Klemm, 1989: Catalogue of national standard precipitation gauges. WMO Instruments and Observing Methods Rep. 39, WMO/TD-313, 50 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sevruk, B., J.-A. Hertig, and R. Spiess, 1991: The effect of precipitation gauge orifice rim on the wind field deformation as investigated in a wind tunnel. Atmos. Environ., 25A, 11731179.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, C. D., 2009: The relationship between snowfall catch efficiency and wind speed for the Geonor T-200B precipitation gauge utilizing various wind shield configurations. Proc. 77th Western Snow Conference, Canmore, AB, Canada, 115121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thériault, J., R. Rasmussen, K. Ikeda, and S. Landolt, 2012: Dependence of snow gauge collection efficiency on snowflake characteristics. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 51, 745762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, D., J. R. Metcalfe, B. E. Goodison, and E. Mekis, 1993: “True snowfall”: An evaluation of the double fence intercomparison reference gauge. Proc. 50th Eastern Snow Conference/61st Western Snow Conference, Quebec City, QC, Canada, 105111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zavorotny, V., K. M. Larson, J. Braun, E. E. Small, E. D. Gutmann, and A. Bilich, 2009: A physical model for GPS multipath caused by land reflections: Toward bare soil moisture retrievals. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Obs. Remote Sens., 3, 100110, doi:10.1109/JSTARS.2009.2033608.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zreda, M., D. Desilets, T. P. A. Ferré, and R. L. Scott, 2008: Measuring soil moisture content non-invasively at intermediate spatial scale using cosmic-ray neutrons. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L21402, doi:10.1029/2008GL035655.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 259 259 259
PDF Downloads 52 52 52

How Well Are We Measuring Snow: The NOAA/FAA/NCAR Winter Precipitation Test Bed

View More View Less
  • 1 National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 2 NOAA/Air Resources Laboratory/Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
  • | 3 Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Restricted access

This paper presents recent efforts to understand the relative accuracies of different instrumentation and gauges with various windshield configurations to measure snowfall. Results from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Marshall Field Site will be highlighted. This site hosts a test bed to assess various solid precipitation measurement techniques and is a joint collaboration between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), NCAR, the National Weather Service (NWS), and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The collaboration involves testing new gauges and other solid precipitation measurement techniques in comparison with World Meteorological Organization (WMO) reference snowfall measurements. This assessment is critical for any ongoing studies and applications, such as climate monitoring and aircraft deicing, that rely on accurate and consistent precipitation measurements.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Roy Rasmussen, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 E-mail: rasmus@ucar.edu

This paper presents recent efforts to understand the relative accuracies of different instrumentation and gauges with various windshield configurations to measure snowfall. Results from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Marshall Field Site will be highlighted. This site hosts a test bed to assess various solid precipitation measurement techniques and is a joint collaboration between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), NCAR, the National Weather Service (NWS), and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The collaboration involves testing new gauges and other solid precipitation measurement techniques in comparison with World Meteorological Organization (WMO) reference snowfall measurements. This assessment is critical for any ongoing studies and applications, such as climate monitoring and aircraft deicing, that rely on accurate and consistent precipitation measurements.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Roy Rasmussen, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 E-mail: rasmus@ucar.edu
Save