• Anwender, D., P. Harr, and S. Jones, 2008: Predictability associated with the extratropical transition of tropical cyclones: Case studies. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 32263247.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braun, S. A., 2010: Reevaluating the role of the Saharan air layer in Atlantic tropical cyclogenesis and evolution. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 20072037.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chou, K.-H., C.-C. Wu, P.-H. Lin, S. D. Aberson, M. Weissmann, F. Harnisch, and T. Nakazawa, 2011: The impact of dropwindsonde observations on typhoon track forecasts in DOTSTAR and T-PARC. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 17281743.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Drobinski, P., and Coauthors, 2006: Des ballons stratospheriques traquent la mousson Africaine. Meteorologie, 55, 23.

  • Drobinski, P., P. Cocquerez, A. Doerenbecher, T. Hock, C. Lavaysse, D. Parsons, and J. L. Redelsperger, and S. Vénel, cited 2013a: Hurricane and monsoon tracking with driftsondes. Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. [Available online at www.springerreference.com/docs/html/chapterdbid/310833.html.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Drobinski, P., and Coauthors, 2013b: Driftsonde observations to evaluate numerical weather prediction of the late 2006 African monsoon. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 52, 974995.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hanesiak, J., and Coauthors, 2010: Storm Studies in the Arctic (STAR). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 4768.

  • Harnisch, F., and M. Weissmann, 2010: Sensitivity of typhoon forecasts to different subsets of targeted dropsonde observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 138, 26642680.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harr, P. A., D. Anwender, and S. C. Jones, 2008: Predictability associated with the downstream impacts of the extratropical transition (ET) of tropical cyclones: Methodology and a case study of Typhoon Nabi (2005). Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 32053225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hawkins, J., and C. Velden, 2011: Supporting meteorological field experiment missions and postmission analysis with satellite digital data and products. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, 10091022.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kristjánsson, J. E., and Coauthors, 2011: The Norwegian IPY–THORPEX: Polar lows and Arctic fronts during the 2008 Andøya Campaign. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, 14431466.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lally, V. E., and R. M. Passi, 1976: Height determination from the carrier balloon dropsonde. J. Appl. Meteor., 15, 337345.

  • Rabier, F., and Coauthors, 2008: An update on THORPEX-related research in data assimilation and observing strategies. Nonlinear Processes Geophys., 15, 8194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rabier, F., and Coauthors, 2010: The Concordiasi project in Antarctica. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 6986.

  • Rabier, F., and Coauthors, 2013: The Concordiasi field experiment over Antarctica: First results from innovative atmospheric measurements. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94, ES17ES20.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Redelsperger, J. L., C. D. Thorncroft, A. Diedhiou, T. Lebel, D. J. Parker, and J. Polcher, 2006: African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis: An international research project and field campaign. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 87, 17391746.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Renfrew, I. A., and Coauthors, 2008: The Greenland Flow Distortion Experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 89, 13071324.

  • Reynolds, C. A., J. D. Doyle, R. M. Hodur, and H. Jin, 2010: Naval Research Laboratory multiscsale targeting guidance for T-PARC and TCS-08. Wea. Forecasting, 25, 526544.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shapiro, M. A., and A. J. Thorpe, 2004: The Observing System Research and Predicability Experiment (THORPEX): International science plan, version 3. WMO/TD-1246, WWRP/THORPEX 2, 51 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vaisala, cited 2013: Vaisala radiosonde RS92-D data sheet. [Available online at www.vaisala.com/Vaisala%20Documents/Brochures%20and%20Datasheets/RS92-D-Datasheet-B210763EN-B-LoRes.pdf.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, J., and Coauthors, 2010: Water vapor variability and comparisons in subtropical Pacific from The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment-Pacific Asian Regional Campaign (T-PARC) driftsonde, Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC), and reanalyses. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D21108, doi:10.1029/2010JD014494.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, J., T. Hock, S. A. Cohn, C. Martin, N. Potts, T. Reale, B. Sun, and F. Tilley, 2013: Unprecedented upper-air dropsonde observations over Antarctica from the 2010 Concordiasi experiment: Validation of satellite-retrieved temperature profiles. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 12311236, doi:10.1002/grl.50246.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weissmann, M., and Coauthors, 2011: The influence of assimilating dropsonde data on typhoon track and mid-latitude forecasts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 908920.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, C.-C., and Coauthors, 2005: Dropwindsonde Observations for Typhoon Surveillance near the Taiwan Region (DOTSTAR): An overview. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86, 787790.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, C.-C., J.-H. Chen, P.-H. Lin, and K.-S. Chou, 2007a: Targeted observations of tropical cyclones based on the adjoint-derived sensitivity steering vector. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 26112626.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, C.-C., K.-H. Chou, P.-H. Lin, S. D. Aberson, M. S. Peng, and T. Nakazawa, 2007b: The impact of dropwindsonde data on typhoon track forecasts in DOTSTAR. Wea. Forecasting, 22, 11571176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, C.-C., and Coauthors, 2009: Intercomparison of targeted observation guidance for tropical cyclones in the northwestern Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 24712492.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 386 156 4
PDF Downloads 137 71 4

Driftsondes: Providing In Situ Long-Duration Dropsonde Observations over Remote Regions

View More View Less
  • 1 National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 2 Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France
  • | 3 National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
  • | 4 CNRMGAME, Météo-France and CNRS, Toulouse, France
  • | 5 University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma
  • | 6 Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California
  • | 7 National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
  • | 8 Ecole Polytechnique/CNRS, Palaiseau, France
  • | 9 CNRMGAME, Météo-France and CNRS, Toulouse, France
  • | 10 Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France
  • | 11 CNRMGAME, Météo-France and CNRS, Toulouse, France
  • | 12 Research Center for Environmental Change, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
  • | 13 National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
  • | 14 National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan
  • | 15 Laboratoire de Physique des Océans, CNRS, IFREMER, IRD, UBO, Plouzané, France
  • | 16 National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
Restricted access

Constellations of driftsonde systems— gondolas floating in the stratosphere and able to release dropsondes upon command— have so far been used in three major field experiments from 2006 through 2010. With them, high-quality, high-resolution, in situ atmospheric profiles were made over extended periods in regions that are otherwise very difficult to observe. The measurements have unique value for verifying and evaluating numerical weather prediction models and global data assimilation systems; they can be a valuable resource to validate data from remote sensing instruments, especially on satellites, but also airborne or ground-based remote sensors. These applications for models and remote sensors result in a powerful combination for improving data assimilation systems. Driftsondes also can support process studies in otherwise difficult locations—for example, to study factors that control the development or decay of a tropical disturbance, or to investigate the lower boundary layer over the interior Antarctic continent. The driftsonde system is now a mature and robust observing system that can be combined with flight-level data to conduct multidisciplinary research at heights well above that reached by current research aircraft. In this article we describe the development and capabilities of the driftsonde system, the exemplary science resulting from its use to date, and some future applications.

*CURRENT AFFILIATION: Advanced Radar Corporation, Boulder, Colorado.

+The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Stephen A. Cohn, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000, E-mail: cohn@ucar.edu

Constellations of driftsonde systems— gondolas floating in the stratosphere and able to release dropsondes upon command— have so far been used in three major field experiments from 2006 through 2010. With them, high-quality, high-resolution, in situ atmospheric profiles were made over extended periods in regions that are otherwise very difficult to observe. The measurements have unique value for verifying and evaluating numerical weather prediction models and global data assimilation systems; they can be a valuable resource to validate data from remote sensing instruments, especially on satellites, but also airborne or ground-based remote sensors. These applications for models and remote sensors result in a powerful combination for improving data assimilation systems. Driftsondes also can support process studies in otherwise difficult locations—for example, to study factors that control the development or decay of a tropical disturbance, or to investigate the lower boundary layer over the interior Antarctic continent. The driftsonde system is now a mature and robust observing system that can be combined with flight-level data to conduct multidisciplinary research at heights well above that reached by current research aircraft. In this article we describe the development and capabilities of the driftsonde system, the exemplary science resulting from its use to date, and some future applications.

*CURRENT AFFILIATION: Advanced Radar Corporation, Boulder, Colorado.

+The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Stephen A. Cohn, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000, E-mail: cohn@ucar.edu
Save