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The DACCIWA Project: Dynamics–Aerosol–Chemistry–Cloud Interactions in West Africa

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  • 1 Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • | 2 School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
  • | 3 Department of Meteorology, The University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
  • | 4 Wolfson Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratories/National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of York, York, United Kingdom
  • | 5 Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • | 6 Laboratoire d’Aerologie, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse, France
  • | 7 Department of Meteorology, The University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
  • | 8 National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
  • | 9 Department of Physics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
  • | 10 Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS and UVSQ, UMR 8190 LATMOS, Paris, France
  • | 11 Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
  • | 12 Laboratoire d’Aerologie, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse, France
  • | 13 National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
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Abstract

Massive economic and population growth, and urbanization are expected to lead to a tripling of anthropogenic emissions in southern West Africa (SWA) between 2000 and 2030. However, the impacts of this on human health, ecosystems, food security, and the regional climate are largely unknown. An integrated assessment is challenging due to (a) a superposition of regional effects with global climate change; (b) a strong dependence on the variable West African monsoon; (c) incomplete scientific understanding of interactions between emissions, clouds, radiation, precipitation, and regional circulations; and (d) a lack of observations. This article provides an overview of the DACCIWA (Dynamics–Aerosol–Chemistry–Cloud Interactions in West Africa) project. DACCIWA will conduct extensive fieldwork in SWA to collect high-quality observations, spanning the entire process chain from surface-based natural and anthropogenic emissions to impacts on health, ecosystems, and climate. Combining the resulting benchmark dataset with a wide range of modeling activities will allow (a) assessment of relevant physical, chemical, and biological processes; (b) improvement of the monitoring of climate and atmospheric composition from space; and (c) development of the next generation of weather and climate models capable of representing coupled cloud–aerosol interactions. The latter will ultimately contribute to reduce uncertainties in climate predictions. DACCIWA collaborates closely with operational centers, international programs, policymakers, and users to actively guide sustainable future planning for West Africa. It is hoped that some of DACCIWA’s scientific findings and technical developments will be applicable to other monsoon regions.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Peter Knippertz, Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany, E-mail: peter.knippertz@kit.edu

Abstract

Massive economic and population growth, and urbanization are expected to lead to a tripling of anthropogenic emissions in southern West Africa (SWA) between 2000 and 2030. However, the impacts of this on human health, ecosystems, food security, and the regional climate are largely unknown. An integrated assessment is challenging due to (a) a superposition of regional effects with global climate change; (b) a strong dependence on the variable West African monsoon; (c) incomplete scientific understanding of interactions between emissions, clouds, radiation, precipitation, and regional circulations; and (d) a lack of observations. This article provides an overview of the DACCIWA (Dynamics–Aerosol–Chemistry–Cloud Interactions in West Africa) project. DACCIWA will conduct extensive fieldwork in SWA to collect high-quality observations, spanning the entire process chain from surface-based natural and anthropogenic emissions to impacts on health, ecosystems, and climate. Combining the resulting benchmark dataset with a wide range of modeling activities will allow (a) assessment of relevant physical, chemical, and biological processes; (b) improvement of the monitoring of climate and atmospheric composition from space; and (c) development of the next generation of weather and climate models capable of representing coupled cloud–aerosol interactions. The latter will ultimately contribute to reduce uncertainties in climate predictions. DACCIWA collaborates closely with operational centers, international programs, policymakers, and users to actively guide sustainable future planning for West Africa. It is hoped that some of DACCIWA’s scientific findings and technical developments will be applicable to other monsoon regions.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Peter Knippertz, Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany, E-mail: peter.knippertz@kit.edu
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