• Boyer, C. B., 1987: The Rainbow: From Myth to Mathematics. Princeton University Press, 376 pp.

  • Brandes, H. W., 1816: Venturi’s Theorie des farbigen Bogens, welcher sich oft an der innern Seite des Regenboges zeigt, dargestellt mit einigen Anmerkungen. Ann. Phys., 52, 385397, doi:10.1002/andp.18160520404.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corliss, W. R., 1977: Handbook of Unusual Natural Phenomena. Sourcebook Project, 542 pp.

  • Edens, H. E., 2015: Photographic observation of a natural fifth-order rainbow. Appl. Opt., 54, B26B34, doi:10.1364/AO.54.000B26.

  • Edens, H. E., and G. P. Können, 2015: Probable photographic detection of the natural seventh-order rainbow. Appl. Opt., 54, B93B96, doi:10.1364/AO.54.000B93.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans, L., 1913: Remarkable lunar halo. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 39, 154, doi:10.1002/qj.49703916609.

  • Floor, C., 2012: Glory from space. Weather, 67, 41, doi:10.1002/wea.868.

  • Fraser, A. B., 1983: Why can the supernumerary bows be seen in a rain shower? J. Opt. Soc. Amer., 73, 16261628, doi:10.1364/JOSA.73.001626.

  • Greenler, R., 1989: Rainbows, Halos, and Glories. Cambridge University Press, 195 pp.

  • Großmann, M., E. Schmidt, and A. Haußmann, 2011: Photographic evidence for the third-order rainbow. Appl. Opt., 50, F134F141, doi:10.1364/AO.50.00F134.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hansen, J. E., and J. Hovenier, 1974: Interpretation of the polarization of Venus. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 11371160, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1974)031<1137:IOTPOV>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haußmann, A., 2015: Observation, analysis, and reconstruction of a twinned rainbow. Appl. Opt., 54, B117B127, doi:10.1364/AO.54.00B117.

  • Israelevich, P. L., J. H. Joseph, Z. Levin, and Y. Yair, 2009: First observation of glory from space. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, 17721774, doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2824.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karalidi, T., D. M. Stam, and J. W. Hovenier, 2012: Looking for the rainbow on exoplanets covered by liquid and icy water clouds. Astron. Astrophys., 548, A90, doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201220245.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Können, G. P., 1985: Polarized Light in Nature. Cambridge University Press, 172 pp.

  • Können, G. P., 1987: Appearance of supernumeraries of the secondary rainbow in rain showers. J. Opt. Soc. Amer., 4A, 810816, doi:10.1364/JOSAA.4.000810.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Können, G. P., 2004: Titan halos. Titan, From Discovery to Encounter, K. Fletcher, Ed., ESA SP-1278, 323–330.

  • Können, G. P., 2006: A halo on Mars. Weather, 61, 171172, doi:10.1256/wea.46.06.

  • Laven, P., 2005a: Atmospheric glories: Simulations and observations. Appl. Opt., 44, 56675675, doi:10.1364/AO.44.005667.

  • Laven, P., 2005b: How are glories formed? Appl. Opt., 44, 56755683, doi:10.1364/AO.44.005675.

  • Laven, P., 2008a: Effects of refractive index on glories. Appl. Opt., 47, H133H142, doi:10.1364/AO.47.00H133.

  • Laven, P., 2008b: Noncircular glories and their relationship to cloud droplet size. Appl. Opt., 47, H25H30, doi:10.1364/AO.47.000H25.

  • Laven, P., 2015: Re-visiting the atmospheric corona. Appl. Opt., 54, B46B53, doi:10.1364/AO.54.000B46.

  • Lee, R. L., and P. Laven, 2011: Visibility of natural tertiary rainbows. Appl. Opt., 50, F152F161, doi:10.1364/AO.50.00F152.

  • Lefaudeux, N. A., 2011: Crystals of hexagonal ice with (2 0 -2 3) Miller index faces explain exotic arcs in the Lascar halo display. Appl. Opt., 50, F121F128, doi:10.1364/AO.50.00F121.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Markiewicz, W. J., and Coauthors, 2014: Glory on Venus cloud tops and the unknown UV absorber. Icarus, 234, 200203, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2014.01.030.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Minnaert, M. G. M., 1993: Light and Color in the Outdoors. Springer-Verlag, 417 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Möbius, W., 1910: Zur Theorie des Regenbogens und ihrer experimentellen Prüfung. Ann. Phys., 338, 14931558, doi:10.1002/andp.19103381622.

  • Parviainen, P., C. F. Bohren, and V. Mäkelä, 1994: Vertical elliptical coronas caused by pollen. Appl. Opt., 33, 45484551, doi:10.1364/AO.33.004548.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petrova, E. V., S. Oksana, W. J. Shalygina, and W. J. Markiewicz, 2015: The VMC/VEx photometry at small phase angles: Glory and the physical properties of particles in the upper cloud layer of Venus. Planet. Space Sci., 113–114, 120134, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2014.11.013.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Riikonen, M., M. Sillanpää, L. Virta, D. Sullivan, J. Moilanen, and I. Luukkonen, 2000: Halo observations provide evidence of airborne cubic ice in the Earth’s atmosphere. Appl. Opt., 39, 60806085, doi:10.1364/AO.39.006080.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shaw, J. A., R. L. Lee, and P. Laven, 2015: Light and color in the open air: Introduction to the feature issue. Appl. Opt., 54, LC1LC2, doi:10.1364/AO.54.000LC1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tape, W., 1994: Atmospheric Halos. Antarctic Research Series, Vol. 64, Amer. Geophys. Union, 143 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Tape, W., and J. Moilanen, 2006: Atmospheric Halos and the Search for Angle X. Amer. Geophys. Union, 238 pp., doi:10.1029/SP058.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Theusner, M., 2011: Photographic observation of a natural fourth-order rainbow. Appl. Opt., 50, F129F133, doi:10.1364/AO.50.00F129.

  • Tomasko, M. G., and Coauthors, 2005: Rain, winds and haze during the Huygens probe’s descent to Titan’s surface. Nature, 438, 765778, doi:10.1038/nature04126.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tränkle, E., and B. Mielke, 1994: Simulation and analysis of pollen coronas. Appl. Opt., 33, 45524562, doi:10.1364/AO.33.004552.

  • Van de Hulst, H. C., 1947: A theory of the anti-coronae. J. Opt. Soc. Amer., 37, 1622, doi:10.1364/JOSA.37.000016.

  • Venturi, G. B., 1814: Commentari sopra la storia e la teorie dell’Ottica. Pe’ Fratelly Masi, 246 pp. [Available online at www.e-rara.ch/zut/content/titleinfo/2654827.]

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 161 161 43
PDF Downloads 136 136 36

Rainbows, Halos, Coronas and Glories: Beautiful Sources of Information

View More View Less
  • 1 Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, Netherlands
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Rainbows, halos, coronas, and glories are aesthetic features admired over millennia by man. They are also carriers of useful information about the physical properties of drops and solid particles floating in the atmospheres of Earth and other planets. Although atmospheric optics is a centuries-old discipline, significant progress in the understanding of these phenomena has been achieved during the past 40 years, as well as of their relation to the physical properties of the individual scatterers. At the same time, with the development of planetary exploration, the number of observations of rainbows, halos, and glories in the atmospheres of planets other than Earth is steadily growing. In this article we describe these phenomena and their information content and illustrate them with pictures mostly showing their typical appearance rather than presenting the “best pictures ever.”

Retired

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR E-MAIL: Gunther P. Können, konnen@planet.nl

Abstract

Rainbows, halos, coronas, and glories are aesthetic features admired over millennia by man. They are also carriers of useful information about the physical properties of drops and solid particles floating in the atmospheres of Earth and other planets. Although atmospheric optics is a centuries-old discipline, significant progress in the understanding of these phenomena has been achieved during the past 40 years, as well as of their relation to the physical properties of the individual scatterers. At the same time, with the development of planetary exploration, the number of observations of rainbows, halos, and glories in the atmospheres of planets other than Earth is steadily growing. In this article we describe these phenomena and their information content and illustrate them with pictures mostly showing their typical appearance rather than presenting the “best pictures ever.”

Retired

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR E-MAIL: Gunther P. Können, konnen@planet.nl
Save