• Bakan, S., and Coauthors, 1991: Climate response to smoke from the burning oil wells in Kuwait. Nature,351, 367–371.

  • Blackmon, M. L., 1976: A climatological spectral study of the 500-mb geopotential height of the Northern Hemisphere. J. Atmos. Sci.,33, 1607–1623.

  • ——, Y. H. Lee, and J. M. Wallace, 1984: Horizontal structure of 500-mb height fluctuations with long, intermediate and short time scales. J. Atmos. Sci.,41, 961–979.

  • Cubasch, U., K. Hasselmann, H. Höck, E. Maier-Reimer, U. Mikolajewicz, B. D. Santer, and R. Sausen, 1992: Time-dependent greenhouse warming computations with a coupled ocean–atmosphere model. Climate Dyn.,8, 55–69.

  • ——, B. D. Santer, A. Hellbach, G. Hegerl, H. Höck, E. Maier-Reimer, U. Mikolajewicz, A. Stössel, and R. Voss, 1994: Monte Carlo climate change forecasts with a global coupled ocean–atmosphere model. Climate Dyn.,10, 1–19.

  • ——, G. Hegerl, A. Hellbach, H. Höck, U. Mikolajewicz, B. D. Santer, and R. Voss, 1995: A climate change simulation starting 1935. Climate Dyn.,11, 71–84.

  • Delworth, T., S. Manabe, and R. Stouffer, 1993: Interdecadal variability of the thermohaline circulation in a coupled ocean–atmosphere model. J. Climate,6, 1993–2011.

  • Drijfhout, S., C. Heinze, M. Latif, and E. Maier-Reimer, 1996: Mean circulation and internal variability in an ocean primitive equation model. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,26, 559–580.

  • Gates, L., U. Cubasch, G. A. Meehl, J. F. B. Mitchell, and R. J. Stouffer, 1993: An intercomparison of the control climates simulated by coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation models. SGCCM, WCRP-82, WMO/TD No. 574, 51 pp. [Available from World Meteorological Organization, Geneva CP2300, Switzerland.].

  • Gates, W. L., A. Henderson-Sellers, G. J. Boer, C. F. Folland, A. Kitoh, B. J. McAvaney, F. Semazzi, N. Smith, A. J. Weaver, and Q.-C. Zeng, 1996: Climate models: Evaluation. The IPCC Second Scientific Assessment of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meiro, B. A. Callender, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 229–284.

  • Hasselmann, K., 1976: Stochastic climate models. Part I: Theory. Tellus,28, 473–485.

  • Hegerl, G. C., H. von Storch, K. Hasselmann, B. D. Santer, U. Cubasch, and P. D. Jones, 1996: Detecting anthropogenic climate change with an optimal fingerprint method. J. Climate,9, 2281–2306.

  • Hellerman, S., and M. Rosenstein, 1983: Normal monthly wind stress over the World Ocean with error estimates. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,13, 1093–1104.

  • IPCC, 1992: Climate Change 1992. The Supplementary Report of the IPCC Scientific Assessment. J. T. Houghton, B. T. Callendar, and S. K. Varney, Eds., University Press, 200 pp.

  • Kang, I.-K., and K.-M. Lau, 1994: Principal modes of atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with global angular momentum fluctuations. J. Atmos. Sci.,51, 1194–1205.

  • Kim, K. Y., G. R. North, and G. C. Hegerl, 1996: Comparisons of the second-moment statistics of climate models. J. Climate,9, 2204–2221.

  • Legates, D. R., and C. J. Willmott, 1990: Mean seasonal and spatial variability in gauge-corrected global precipitation. Int. J. Climatol.,10, 111–127.

  • Levitus, S., 1982: Climatology atlas of the World Ocean. NOAA Prof. Paper 13, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 173 pp.

  • Maier-Reimer, E., and U. Mikolajewicz, 1991: The Hamburg large scale geostrophic ocean general circulation model. DKRZ Tech. Rep. 3, 34 pp. [Available from DKRZ, Bundesstrasse 55, 20146 Hamburg, Germany.].

  • ——, ——, and K. Hasselmann, 1993: Mean circulation of the Hamburg LSG OGCM and its sensitivity to the thermohaline surface forcing. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,23, 731–757.

  • Manabe, S., and R. J. Stouffer, 1996: Low-frequency variability of surface air temperature in a 1000-year integration of a coupled ocean–land surface model. J. Climate,9, 376–393.

  • Mikolajewicz, U., and E. Maier-Reimer, 1990: Internal secular variability in an ocean general circulation model. Climate Dyn.,5, 145–156.

  • Robertson, A., 1996: Interdecadal variability over the North Pacific in a coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model. Climate Dyn.,12, 227–241.

  • Roeckner, E., and Coauthors, 1992: Simulation of the present-day climate with the ECHAM model: Impact of model physics and resolution. Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie Rep. 93, 172 pp.[Available from DKRZ, Bundesstrasse 55, 20146 Hamburg, Germany.].

  • Rogers, J. C., and H. van Loon, 1982: Spatial variability of sea level pressure and 500-mb height anomalies over the Southern Hemisphere. Mon. Wea. Rev.,110, 1375–1392.

  • Santer, B. D., K. E. Taylor, J. E. Penner, T. M. L. Wigley, U. Cubasch, and P. D. Jones, 1995: Towards the detection and attribution of an anthropogenic effect on climate. Climate Dyn.,12, 77–100.

  • ——, T. M. L. Wigley, T. P. Barnett, and E. Anyamba, 1996: Detection of climate change and attribution of causes. The IPCC Second Scientific Assessment of Climate Change, J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meiro, B. A. Callender, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 407–444.

  • Sausen, R., K. Barthels, and K. Hasselmann, 1988: Coupled ocean–atmosphere models with flux correction. Climate Dyn.,2, 154–163.

  • Tett, S. F. B., T. C. Johns, and J. F. B. Mitchell, 1997: Global and regional variability in a coupled AOGCM. Climate Dyn., in press.

  • Thiébaux, H. J., and F. W. Zwiers, 1984: The interpretation and estimation of effective sample size. J. Climate Appl. Meteor.,23, 800–811.

  • Trenberth, K. E., and J. R. Christy, 1985: Global fluctuations in the distribution of atmospheric mass. J. Geophys. Res.,90 (D5), 8042–8052.

  • Untersteiner, N., 1984: The cryosphere. The Global Climate, J. T. Houghton, Ed., Cambridge University Press, 121–140.

  • von Storch, H., 1994: Interdecadal variability in a global coupled model. Tellus,46A, 419–432.

  • ——, 1995: Misuses of statistical analysis in climate research. Analysis of Climate Variability; Applications of Statistical Techniques, H. von Storch and A. Navarra, Eds., Springer Verlag, 11–26.

  • Wallace, J. M., and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev.,109, 784–812.

  • Whitworth, T., and R. G. Peterson, 1985: Volume transport of the Antarctic circumpolar current from bottom pressure measurements. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,15, 810–816.

  • Woodruff, S. D., R. J. Slutz, R. L. Jenne, and P. M. Steurer, 1987: A Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,68, 1239–1250.

  • Xu, J.-S., H. von Storch, and H. van Loon, 1990: The performance of four spectral GCMs in the Southern Hemisphere: The January and July climatology and the semiannual wave. J. Climate,3, 53–70.

  • Yin, F. L., and E. S. Sarachik, 1995: Interdecadal thermohaline oscillations in a sector ocean general circulation model: Advective and convective processes. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,25, 2465–2484.

  • Zorita, E., and C. Frankignoul, 1997: Modes of North Atlantic decadal variability in the ECHAM1/LSG coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model. J. Climate,10, 183–200.

  • Zwiers, F. W., and H. von Storch, 1995: Taking serial correlation into account in tests of the mean. J. Climate,8, 336–351.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 88 88 72
PDF Downloads 4 4 0

A Description of a 1260-Year Control Integration with the Coupled ECHAM1/LSG General Circulation Model

View More View Less
  • 1 Institute of Meteorology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • | 2 Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
  • | 3 German Climate Computer Center, Hamburg, Germany
  • | 4 Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany
  • | 5 Institute of Hydrophysics, GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht, Germany
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

A 1260-yr integration generated by the ECHAM1/LSG (Large Scale Geostrophic) coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model is analyzed in this paper. The analysis focuses on the climate drift and on the variations of the coupled atmosphere–ocean system after the initial climate drift has essentially died out.

The initial drift is induced, to a large extent, by the applied heat flux correction, which has very large spatially fixed values of upward heat flux in the polar regions, in particular along the Antarctic coast. The globally integrated freshwater flux becomes unbalanced during the integration, due to the changes in the snow accumulation rate over Greenland and Antarctica. The resulting net upward freshwater flux induces a linear trend in the salinity of the upper ocean. The drift of temperature and salinity in the deep ocean, which is essentially independent of the boundary condition variations during the coupled integration, is presumably related to the spinup of the deep ocean prior to the coupling.

The analysis of the last 810 yr of the integration, which is free from the strong initial drift, suggests that the tropospheric variations are white on timescales longer than 1 yr. The dominant Northern Hemispheric mode resembles the western Atlantic pattern. The dominant tropical and Southern Hemispheric modes are essentially zonally symmetric. All these modes can be found on both short (1 yr) and long (15 yr) timescales. For the oceanic variations, the spatial distribution of the total variance and the dominant modes and the relationships between these modes are studied. For the horizontal barotropic streamfunction, the most dominant mode describes an anomalous westward (eastward) circumpolar flow together with clockwise (anticlockwise) circulation in the Southern Atlantic and southeast of South Africa and in the Southern Pacific. For the zonally averaged meridional circulations the most dominant modes of variability describe essentially recirculations within each basin.

Corresponding author address: Jin-Song von Storch, Institute of Hydrophysics, GKSS-Research-Center, P.O. Box D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany.

Email: jinsong@gkss.de

Abstract

A 1260-yr integration generated by the ECHAM1/LSG (Large Scale Geostrophic) coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model is analyzed in this paper. The analysis focuses on the climate drift and on the variations of the coupled atmosphere–ocean system after the initial climate drift has essentially died out.

The initial drift is induced, to a large extent, by the applied heat flux correction, which has very large spatially fixed values of upward heat flux in the polar regions, in particular along the Antarctic coast. The globally integrated freshwater flux becomes unbalanced during the integration, due to the changes in the snow accumulation rate over Greenland and Antarctica. The resulting net upward freshwater flux induces a linear trend in the salinity of the upper ocean. The drift of temperature and salinity in the deep ocean, which is essentially independent of the boundary condition variations during the coupled integration, is presumably related to the spinup of the deep ocean prior to the coupling.

The analysis of the last 810 yr of the integration, which is free from the strong initial drift, suggests that the tropospheric variations are white on timescales longer than 1 yr. The dominant Northern Hemispheric mode resembles the western Atlantic pattern. The dominant tropical and Southern Hemispheric modes are essentially zonally symmetric. All these modes can be found on both short (1 yr) and long (15 yr) timescales. For the oceanic variations, the spatial distribution of the total variance and the dominant modes and the relationships between these modes are studied. For the horizontal barotropic streamfunction, the most dominant mode describes an anomalous westward (eastward) circumpolar flow together with clockwise (anticlockwise) circulation in the Southern Atlantic and southeast of South Africa and in the Southern Pacific. For the zonally averaged meridional circulations the most dominant modes of variability describe essentially recirculations within each basin.

Corresponding author address: Jin-Song von Storch, Institute of Hydrophysics, GKSS-Research-Center, P.O. Box D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany.

Email: jinsong@gkss.de

Save