• Bishop, J. K. B., W. B. Rossow, and E. G. Dutton, 1997: Surface solar irradiance from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project 1983–1991. J. Geophys. Res.,102, 6883–6910.

  • Bonan, G., 1998: The land surface climatology of the NCAR land surface model (LSM 1.0) coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3). J. Climate,11, 1307–1326.

  • Boville, B. A., and P. R. Gent, 1998: The NCAR Climate System Model, version one. J. Climate,11, 1115–1130.

  • ——, and J. Hurrell, 1998: A comparison of the atmospheric circulations simulated by the CCM3 and CSM1. J. Climate,11, 1327–1341.

  • Cess, R. D., 1995: Absorption of solar radiation by clouds. Science,267, 496–499.

  • Chou, M.-D., and W. Zhao, 1997: Estimation and model validation of surface solar radiation and cloud radiative forcing using TOGA COARE measurements. J. Climate,10, 610–620.

  • Collins, W. D., J. Wang, J. T. Kiehl, and G. J. Zhang, 1997: Comparison of tropical ocean–atmosphere fluxes with the NCAR Community Climate Model CCM3. J. Climate,10, 3047–3058.

  • Doney, S. C., W. G. Large, and F. O. Bryan, 1998: Surface ocean fluxes and water-mass transformation rates in the coupled NCAR Climate System Model. J. Climate,11, 1420–1441.

  • Frey, H., M. Latif, and T. Stockdale, 1997: The coupled GCM ECHO-2. Part I: The tropical Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 703–720.

  • Gent, P. R., 1991: The heat budget of the TOGA-COARE domain in an ocean model. J. Geophys. Res.,96, 3323–3330.

  • ——, and J. C. McWilliams, 1990: Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,20, 150–155.

  • ——, F. O. Bryan, G. Danabasoglu, S. C. Doney, W. R. Holland, W. G. Large, and J. C. McWilliams, 1998: The NCAR Climate System Model global ocean component. J. Climate,11, 1287–1306.

  • Hack, J. J., 1994: Parameterization of moist convection in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2). J. Geophys. Res.,99, 5551–5568.

  • Hartmann, D. L., and M. L. Michelsen, 1993: Large-scale effects on the regulation of tropical sea surface temperature. J. Climate,6, 2049–2062.

  • Holtslag, A. A. M., and B. A. Boville, 1993: Local versus non-local boundary layer diffusion in a global climate model. J. Climate,6, 1825–1842.

  • Houze, R. A., 1989: Observed structure of mesoscale convective systems and implications for large-scale heating. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,115, 425–461.

  • Kiehl, J. T., 1994: On the observed near cancellation between longwave and shortwave cloud forcing in tropical regions. J. Climate,7, 559–565.

  • ——, and K. E. Trenberth, 1997: Earth’s annual global mean energy budget. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,78, 197–208.

  • ——, J. J. Hack, G. Bonan, B. A. Boville, D. Williamson, and P. J. Rasch, 1998: The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model: CCM3. J. Climate,11, 1131–1149.

  • Large, W. G., J. C. McWilliams, and S. C. Doney, 1994: Oceanic vertical mixing: A review and a model with a nonlocal boundary layer parameterization. Rev. Geophys.,32, 363–403.

  • ——, G. Danabasoglu, S. C. Doney, and J. C. McWilliams, 1997: Sensitivity to surface forcing and boundary layer mixing in a global ocean model: Annual-mean climatology. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,27, 2418–2447.

  • Lau, N.-C., 1997: Interactions between global SST anomalies and midlatitude atmospheric circulation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,78, 21–33.

  • Lindzen, R. S., and S. Nigam, 1987: On the role of sea surface temperature gradients in forcing low-level winds and convergence in the tropics. J. Atmos. Sci.,44, 2418–2436.

  • Lukas, R., and E. Lindstrom, 1997: The mixed layer of the western equatorial Pacific ocean, J. Geophys. Res.,102, 3344–3357.

  • Ma, C.-C., C. R. Mechoso, A. Arakawa, and J. D. Farrara, 1994: Sensitivity of a coupled ocean–atmosphere model to physical parameterizations. J. Climate,7, 1883–1896.

  • ——, ——, A. W. Robertson, and A. Arakawa, 1996: Peruvian stratus clouds and the tropical Pacific circulation: A coupled ocean–atmosphere GCM study. J. Climate,9, 1635–1645.

  • Mechoso, C. R., and Coauthors, 1995: The seasonal cycle over the tropical Pacific in coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation models. Mon. Wea. Rev.,123, 2825–2838.

  • Oberhuber, J. M., 1988: An atlas based on the “COADS” data set: The budgets of heat, buoyancy and turbulent kinetic energy at the surface of the global ocean. Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology Rep. 15, Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany, 199 pp.

  • Pilewskie, P., and F. P. J. Valero, 1995: Direct observations of excess solar absorption by clouds. Science,267, 1626–1629.

  • Ramanathan, V., R. D. Cess, E. F. Harrison, P. Minnis, B. R. Barkstrom, E. Ahmad, and D. L. Hartmann, 1989: Cloud radiative forcing and climate: Results from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. Science,243, 57–63.

  • ——, R. Dirks, R. Grossman, A. Heymsfield, J. Kuettner, and F. Valero, 1993: Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment design. Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate, University of California, San Diego, CA, 54 pp. [Available from NCAR, P. O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307.].

  • ——, B. Subasilar, G. J. Zhang, W. Conant, R. D. Cess, J. T. Kiehl, H. Grassl, and L. Shi, 1995: Warm pool heat budegt and shortwave cloud forcing: A missing physics? Science,267, 499–503.

  • Russell, G. L., J. R. Miller, and D. Rind, 1995: A coupled atmosphere–ocean model for transient climate change studies. Atmos.–Ocean,33, 683–730.

  • Schneider, E. K., Z. Zhu, B. S. Giese, B. Huang, B. P. Kirtman, J. Shukla, and J. A. Carton, 1997: Annual cycle and ENSO in a coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model. Mon. Wea. Rev.,125, 680–702.

  • Schneider, N., T. Barnett, M. Latif, and T. Stockdale, 1996: Warm pool physics in a coupled GCM. J. Climate,9, 219–239.

  • Shea, D. J., K. E. Trenberth, and R. W. Reynolds, 1990: A global monthly sea surface temperature climatology. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-345, 167 pp. [Available from NCAR, P. O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307.].

  • Stockdale, T., M. Latif, G. Burgers, and J.-O. Wolff, 1994: Some sensitivities of a coupled ocean–atmosphere GCM. Tellus,46A, 367–380.

  • Waliser, D. E., and N. E. Graham, 1993: Convective cloud systems and warm pool sea surface temperatures: Coupled interactions and self regulation. J. Geophys. Res.,98, 12 881–12 893.

  • ——, W. D. Collins, and S. P. Anderson, 1996: An estimate of the surface shortwave cloud forcing over the western pacific during TOGA COARE. Geophys. Res. Lett.,23, 519–522.

  • Weatherly, J., B. Briegleb, W. G. Large, and T. Bettge, 1998: Sea ice and polar climate in the NCAR CSM. J. Climate,11, 1472–1486.

  • Webster, P. J., 1994: The role of hydrological processes in ocean–atmosphere interactions. Rev. Geophys.,32, 427–476.

  • ——, and R. Lukas, 1992: TOGA COARE: The Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,73, 1377–1416.

  • Zhang, G. J., and N. A. McFarlane, 1995: Sensitivity of climate simulations to the parameterization of cumulus convection in the Canadian Climate Centre general circulation model. Atmos.–Ocean,33, 407–446.

  • ——, and M. J. McPhaden, 1995: The relationship between sea surface temperature and latent heat flux in the equatorial Pacific. J. Climate,8, 589–605.

  • ——, and R. L. Grossman, 1996: Surface evaporation during the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment: A climate-scale perspective. J. Climate,9, 2522–2537.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 125 125 3
PDF Downloads 23 23 0

Simulation of the Tropical Pacific Warm Pool with the NCAR Climate System Model

View More View Less
  • 1 National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

The simulation of the tropical western Pacific warm pool is explored with the NCAR Climate System Model (CSM). The simulated sea surface temperatures in the Pacific basin have biases that are similar to other coupled model simulations in this region. In particular, an excessive cold tongue of water extends across the Pacific basin, with warm water on either side of this cold tongue. The warm pool region is also too cold. This cold bias exists in spite of an overestimate in surface net energy flux into this region. To understand the source of this bias in SST, simulations from the uncoupled and fully coupled models are analyzed in terms of biases in surface energy budget. These analyses suggest that the strong constraint of little ocean heat transport out of the warm pool region forces a change in SST gradient that leads to an increase in the atmospheric zonal wind. This increase in zonal wind causes an increase in latent heat flux in the warm pool region. The increase in latent heat flux is required to offset a significant (∼35 W m−2) bias in net surface solar flux. The bias in surface solar flux is due to an underestimate of model cloud shortwave absorption.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Jeffrey T. Kiehl, NCAR/CGD, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000.

Email: jtkon@ucar.edu

Abstract

The simulation of the tropical western Pacific warm pool is explored with the NCAR Climate System Model (CSM). The simulated sea surface temperatures in the Pacific basin have biases that are similar to other coupled model simulations in this region. In particular, an excessive cold tongue of water extends across the Pacific basin, with warm water on either side of this cold tongue. The warm pool region is also too cold. This cold bias exists in spite of an overestimate in surface net energy flux into this region. To understand the source of this bias in SST, simulations from the uncoupled and fully coupled models are analyzed in terms of biases in surface energy budget. These analyses suggest that the strong constraint of little ocean heat transport out of the warm pool region forces a change in SST gradient that leads to an increase in the atmospheric zonal wind. This increase in zonal wind causes an increase in latent heat flux in the warm pool region. The increase in latent heat flux is required to offset a significant (∼35 W m−2) bias in net surface solar flux. The bias in surface solar flux is due to an underestimate of model cloud shortwave absorption.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Jeffrey T. Kiehl, NCAR/CGD, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000.

Email: jtkon@ucar.edu

Save