• Bottomley, M., , C. Folland, , J. Hsiung, , R. Newell, , and D. Parker, 1990:: Global ocean surface temperature atlas (GOSTA). Joint Meteorological Office/Massachusetts Institute of Technology Project, Tech. Report, HMSO, London, England, 24 pp. and 313 plates.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Casey, K. S., , and P. Cornillon, 1999: A comparison of satellite and in situ based sea surface temperature climatologies. J. Climate, 12 , 18481863.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farmer, G., , T. Wigley, , P. Jones, , and M. Slamon, 1989: Documenting and explaining recent global-mean temperature changes. Final report to NERC. Climate Research Unit Tech. Rep. Contract No. GR3/6565, Norwich, United Kingdom, 141 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Folland, C., , and D. Parker, 1995: Correction of instrumental biases in historical sea surface temperature data. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 121 , 319367.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Folland, C., , D. Parker, , and F. Kates, 1984: Worldwide marine temperature fluctuations 1856–1981. Nature, 310 , 670673.

  • Folland, C., , T. Karl, , and K. Vinnikov, 1990: Observed climate variations and change. Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, J. Houghton, G. Jenkins, and J. Ephraums, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 195–238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Folland, C., , T. Karl, , N. Nicholls, , B. Nyenzi, , D. Parker, , and K. Vinnikov, 1992: Observed climate variability and change. Climate Change 1992: The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment, J. T. Houghton, B. A. Callander, and S. K. Varney, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 135–170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frankignoul, C., , and R. Reynolds, 1983: Testing a dynamical model for mid-latitude sea surface temperature. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 13 , 11311145.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holbrook, N. J., , and N. L. Bindoff, 1997: Interannual and decadal temperature variability in the southwest Pacific Ocean between 1955 and 1988. J. Climate, 10 , 10351049.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houghton, J. T., , G. J. Jenkins, , and J. J. Ephraums, Eds.,. . 1990: Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment. Cambridge University Press, 365 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houghton, J. T., , B. A. Callander, , and S. K. Varney, Eds.,. . 1992: Climate Change 1992: The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment. Cambridge University Press, 205 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houghton, J. T., , L. G. Meira Filho, , B. A. Callander, , N. Harris, , A. Kattenberg, , and K. Maskell, Eds.,. . 1996: Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, 572 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaplan, A., , Y. Kushnir, , M. Cane, , and M. Blumenthal, 1997: Reduced space optimal analysis for historical data sets: 136 years of Atlantic sea surface temperatures. J. Geophys. Res, 102 , 2783527860.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaplan, A., , M. Cane, , Y. Kushnir, , A. Clement, , M. Blumenthal, , and B. Rajagopalan, 1998: Analyses of global sea surface temperature 1856–1991. J. Geophys. Res, 103 , 1856718589.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karl, T. R., , R. W. Knight, , and J. R. Christy, 1994: Global and hemispheric temperature trends: Uncertainties related to inadequate spatial sampling. J. Climate, 7 , 11441163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, K-M., , and H. Weng, 1999: Interannual, decadal-interdecadal, and global warming signals in sea surface temperature during 1955–97. J. Climate, 12 , 12571267.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levitus, S., , and T. Boyer, 1994: Temperature. Vol. 4, World Ocean Atlas 1994, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 4, 117 pp.

  • Levitus, S., , J. I. Antonov, , T. P. Boyer, , and C. Stephans, 2000: Warming of the world ocean. Science, 287 , 22252229.

  • Luo, Z., , G. Wahba, , and D. R. Johnson, 1998: Spatial-temporal analysis of temperature using a smoothing spline ANOVA. J. Climate, 11 , 1828.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mehta, V. M., 1998: Variability of the tropical ocean surface temperatures at decadal–multidecadal timescales. Part I: The Atlantic Ocean. J. Climate, 11 , 23512375.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Molinari, R. L., , D. A. Mayer, , J. F. Fester, , and H. F. Bezdek, 1997: Multiyear variability in the near-surface temperature structure of the midlatitude western North Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res, 102 , 32673278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nicholls, N., , G. V. Gruza, , J. Jouzel, , T. Karl, , L. Ogallo, , and D. Parker, 1996: Observed climate variability and change. Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change, J. Houghton et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 133–192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paltridge, G., , and S. Woodruff, 1981: Changes in global surface temperature from 1880 to 1977 derived from historical records of sea surface temperature. Mon. Wea. Rev, 109 , 24272434.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parker, D. E., , P. Jones, , C. Folland, , and A. Bevan, 1994: Interdecadal changes of surface temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res, 99 , 1437314399.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parker, D. E., , C. K. Folland, , and M. Jackson, 1995: Marine surface temperature: Observed variations and data requirements. Climatic Change, 31 , 559600.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parker, D. E., , C. K. Folland, , A. C. Bevan, , M. N. Ward, , M. Jackson, , and K. Maskell, 1996: Marine surface data for analysis of climatic fluctuations on interannual-to-century time scales. Natural Climate Variability On Decade-to-Century Time Scales, D. G. Martinson et al., Eds., National Academy Press, 241–252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Press, W. H., , S. A. Teukolsky, , W. T. Vetterling, , and B. P. Flannery, 1992: Modeling of data. Numerical Recipes in C. 2d ed. Cambridge University Press, 656–706.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reynolds, R. W., , and T. M. Smith, 1995: A high-resolution global sea surface temperature climatology. J. Climate, 8 , 15711583.

  • Reynolds, R. W., , C. K. Folland, , and D. E. Parker, 1989: Biases in satellite-derived sea-surface-temperature data. Nature, 341 , 728731.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shen, S. S., , T. M. Smith, , C. F. Ropelewski, , and R. E. Livezey, 1998:: An optimal regional averaging method with error estimates and a test using tropical Pacific SST data. J. Climate, 11 , 23402350.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, T. M., , R. W. Reynolds, , and C. F. Ropelewski, 1994: Optimal averaging of seasonal sea surface temperatures and associated confidence intervals (1860–1989). J. Climate, 7 , 949964.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strong, A., 1989: Greater global warming revealed by satellite-derived sea-surface-temperature trends. Nature, 338 , 642645.

  • Strong, A., , E. Kearns, , and K. Gjovig, 2000: Sea surface temperature signals from satellites—An update. Geophys. Res. Lett, 27 , 16671670.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., , J. R. Christy, , and J. W. Hurrell, 1992: Monitoring global monthly mean surface temperatures. J. Climate, 5 , 14051423.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Venegas, S. A., , L. A. Mysak, , and D. N. Straub, 1996: Evidence for interannual and interdecadal climate variability in the South Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett, 23 , 26732676.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Venegas, S. A., , L. A. Mysak, , and D. N. Straub, 1997: Atmosphere–ocean coupled variability in the South Atlantic. J. Climate, 10 , 29042920.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woodruff, S., 1990: Preliminary comparison of COADS (US) and MDB (UK) ship reports. Observed Climate Variations and Change: Contributions in Support of Section 7 of the 1990 IPCC Scientific Assessment, D. Parker, Ed., WMO/UNEP, XXVII.1–XXVII.36.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woodruff, S., , R. Slutz, , R. Jenne, , and P. Steurer, 1987: A comprehensive ocean–atmosphere data set. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 68 , 12391250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woodruff, S., , S. Lubker, , K. Wolter, , S. Worley, , and J. Elms, 1993: Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) Release 1a: 1980–92. Earth Syst. Monit, 4 , 18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woodruff, S., , H. Diaz, , J. Elms, , and S. Worley, 1998: COADS Release 2 data and metadata enhancements for improvements of marine surface flux fields. Phys. Chem. Earth, 23 , 517526.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zheng, X., , R. E. Basher, , and C. S. Thompson, 1997: Trend detection in regional-mean temperature series: Maximum, minimum, mean, diurnal range, and SST. J. Climate, 10 , 317326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 201 201 25
PDF Downloads 109 109 32

Global and Regional Sea Surface Temperature Trends

View More View Less
  • 1 Oceanography Department, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland
  • | 2 Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, Rhode Island
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Individual sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are calculated using a satellite-based climatology and observations from the World Ocean Atlas 1994 (WOA94) and the Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) to characterize global and regional changes in ocean surface temperature since 1942. For each of these datasets, anomaly trends are computed using a new method that groups individual anomalies into climatological temperature classes. These temperature class anomaly trends are compared with trends estimated using a technique representative of previous studies based on 5° latitude–longitude bins.

Global linear trends in the data-rich period between 1960 and 1990 calculated from the WOA94 data are found to be 0.14° ± 0.04°C decade−1 for the temperature class approach and 0.13° ± 0.04°C decade−1 for the 5° bin approach. The corresponding results for the COADS data are 0.10° ± 0.03°C and 0.09° ± 0.03°C decade−1. These trends are not statistically different at the 95% confidence level. Additionally, they agree closely with both SST and land–air temperature trends estimated from results reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The similarity between the COADS trends and the trends calculated from the WOA94 dataset provides confirmation of previous SST trend studies, which are based almost exclusively on volunteer observing ship datasets like COADS.

Regional linear trends reveal a nonuniformity in the SST rates between 1945–70 and 1970–95. Intensified warming during the later period is observed in the eastern equatorial Pacific, the North Atlantic subtropical convergence, and in the vicinity of the Kuroshio extension. Also, despite close agreement globally, localized differences between COADS and WOA94 trends are observed.

Corresponding author address: Kenneth S. Casey, Oceanography Department, United States Naval Academy, 572M Holloway Rd., Annapolis, MD 21401. Email: casey@usna.edu

Abstract

Individual sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are calculated using a satellite-based climatology and observations from the World Ocean Atlas 1994 (WOA94) and the Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) to characterize global and regional changes in ocean surface temperature since 1942. For each of these datasets, anomaly trends are computed using a new method that groups individual anomalies into climatological temperature classes. These temperature class anomaly trends are compared with trends estimated using a technique representative of previous studies based on 5° latitude–longitude bins.

Global linear trends in the data-rich period between 1960 and 1990 calculated from the WOA94 data are found to be 0.14° ± 0.04°C decade−1 for the temperature class approach and 0.13° ± 0.04°C decade−1 for the 5° bin approach. The corresponding results for the COADS data are 0.10° ± 0.03°C and 0.09° ± 0.03°C decade−1. These trends are not statistically different at the 95% confidence level. Additionally, they agree closely with both SST and land–air temperature trends estimated from results reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The similarity between the COADS trends and the trends calculated from the WOA94 dataset provides confirmation of previous SST trend studies, which are based almost exclusively on volunteer observing ship datasets like COADS.

Regional linear trends reveal a nonuniformity in the SST rates between 1945–70 and 1970–95. Intensified warming during the later period is observed in the eastern equatorial Pacific, the North Atlantic subtropical convergence, and in the vicinity of the Kuroshio extension. Also, despite close agreement globally, localized differences between COADS and WOA94 trends are observed.

Corresponding author address: Kenneth S. Casey, Oceanography Department, United States Naval Academy, 572M Holloway Rd., Annapolis, MD 21401. Email: casey@usna.edu

Save