• Andrews, D. G., and M. E. McIntyre, 1978: An exact theory of nonlinear waves on a Lagrangian-mean flow. J. Fluid Mech., 89 , 609646.

  • Berggren, R., B. Bolin, and C-G. Rossby, 1949: An aerological study of zonal motion, its perturbations, and breakdown. Tellus, 1 , 1437.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bjerknes, J., 1966: A possible response of the atmospheric Hadley circulation to equatorial anomalies of ocean temperature. Tellus, 18 , 820829.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bjerknes, J., . 1969: Atmospheric teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific. Mon. Wea. Rev., 97 , 163172.

  • Black, R. X., 1998: The maintenance of extratropical intraseasonal transient eddy activity in the GEOS-1 assimilated dataset. J. Atmos. Sci., 55 , 31593175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blackmon, M. L., 1976: A climatological spectral study of the 500 mb geopotential height of the Northern Hemisphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 33 , 16071623.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blackmon, M. L., J. M. Wallace, N-C. Lau, and S. L. Mullen, 1977: An observational study of the Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 34 , 10401053.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blade, I., 1997: The influence of midlatitude ocean–atmosphere coupling on the low-frequency variability of a GCM. Part I: No tropical SST forcing. J. Climate, 10 , 20872106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boville, B. A., 1991: Sensitivity of simulated climate to model resolution. J. Climate, 4 , 469485.

  • Branscome, L. E., W. J. Gutowski, and D. A. Stewart, 1989: Effects of surface fluxes on the nonlinear development of baroclinic waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 460475.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Branstator, G., 1992: The maintenance of low-frequency atmospheric anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci., 49 , 19241945.

  • Branstator, G., . 1995: Organization of storm track anomalies by recurring low-frequency circulation anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 207226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Broccoli, A. J., and S. Manabe, 1992: The effects of orography on midlatitude Northern Hemisphere dry climates. J. Climate, 5 , 11811201.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Browning, K. A., and N. M. Roberts, 1994: Structure of a frontal cyclone. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120 , 15351557.

  • Cai, M., and M. Mak, 1990: Symbiotic relation between planetary and synoptic scale waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 29532968.

  • Carillo, A., P. M. Ruti, and A. Navarra, 2000: Storm tracks and zonal mean flow variability: A comparison between observed and simulated data. Climate Dyn., 16 , 219228.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, E. K. M., 1993: Downstream development of baroclinic waves as inferred from regression analysis. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 20382053.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, E. K. M., . 1999: Characteristics of wave packets in the upper troposphere. Part II: Hemispheric and seasonal differences. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 17291747.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, E. K. M., . 2000: Wave packets and life cycles of troughs in the upper troposphere: Examples from the Southern Hemisphere summer season of 1984/85. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128 , 2550.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, E. K. M., . 2001a: GCM and observational diagnoses of the seasonal and interannual variations of the Pacific storm track during the cool seasons. J. Atmos. Sci., 58 , 17841800.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, E. K. M., . 2001b: The structure of baroclinic wave packets. J. Atmos. Sci., 58 , 16941713.

  • Chang, E. K. M., and I. Orlanski, 1993: On the dynamics of a storm track. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 9991015.

  • Chang, E. K. M., . 1994: On energy flux and group velocity of waves in baroclinic flows. J. Atmos. Sci., 51 , 38233828.

  • Chang, E. K. M., and D. B. Yu, 1999: Characteristics of wave packets in the upper troposphere. Part I: Northern Hemisphere winter. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 17081728.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, E. K. M., and Y. Fu, 2002: Interdecadal variations in Northern Hemisphere winter storm track intensity. J. Climate, 15 , 642658.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Charney, J. G., 1947: The dynamics of long waves in a baroclinic westerly current. J. Meteor., 4 , 135162.

  • Christoph, M., U. Ulbrich, and P. Speth, 1997: Midwinter suppression of Northern Hemisphere storm track activity in the real atmosphere and in GCM experiments. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 15891599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Colucci, S. J., 1985: Explosive cyclogenesis and large-scale circulation changes: Implications for atmospheric blocking. J. Atmos. Sci., 42 , 27012717.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cressman, G. P., 1948: On the forecasting of long waves in the upper westerlies. J. Meteor., 5 , 4457.

  • Davis, C. A., M. T. Stoelinga, and Y-H. Kuo, 1993: The integrated effect of condensation in numerical simulations of extratropical cyclogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 23092330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delsole, T., and B. F. Farrell, 1995: A stochastically excited linear system as a model for quasigeostrophic turbulence: Analytic results for one- and two-layer fluids. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 25312547.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delsole, T., and A. Y. Hou, 1999: Empirical stochastic models for the dominant climate statistics of a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 34363456.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delworth, T. L., 1996: North Atlantic interannual variability in a coupled ocean–atmosphere model. J. Climate, 9 , 23562375.

  • Dole, R. M., 1986: Persistent anomalies of the extratropical Northern Hemisphere winter-time circulation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114 , 178207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dong, B., and P. J. Valdes, 2000: Climates at the last glacial maximum: Influence of model horizontal resolution. J. Climate, 13 , 15541573.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eady, E. T., 1949: Long waves and cyclone waves. Tellus, 1 , 3352.

  • Ebisuzaki, W., and M. Chelliah, 1998: ENSO and inter-decadal variability in storm tracks over North America and vicinity. Proc. 23d Annual Climate Diagnostics and Prediction Workshop, Miami, FL, NOAA, 243–246.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Emanuel, K. A., M. Fantini, and A. J. Thorpe, 1987: Baroclinic instability in an environment of small stability to slantwise moist convection. Part I: Two-dimensional models. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 15591573.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fantini, M., 1995: Moist Eady waves in a quasigeostrophic three-dimensional model. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 24732485.

  • Farrell, B. F., 1982: The initial growth of disturbances in a baroclinic flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 39 , 16631686.

  • Farrell, B. F., . 1984: Modal and non-modal baroclinic waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 41 , 668673.

  • Farrell, B. F., . 1985: Transient growth of damped baroclinic waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 42 , 27182727.

  • Farrell, B. F., and P. J. Ioannou, 1994: A theory for the statistical equilibrium energy and heat flux produced by transient baroclinic waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 51 , 26852698.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferranti, L., F. Molteni, and T. N. Palmer, 1994: Impact of localized tropical and extra-tropical SST anomalies in ensembles of seasonal GCM integrations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120 , 16131645.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frederiksen, J. S., 1983: Disturbances and eddy fluxes in Northern Hemisphere flows: Instability of three-dimensional January and July flows. J. Atmos. Sci., 40 , 836855.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Geng, Q., and M. Sugi, 2001: Variability of the North Atlantic cyclone activity in winter analyzed from NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data. J. Climate, 14 , 38633873.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graham, N. E., and H. F. Diaz, 2001: Evidence for intensification of North Pacific winter cyclones since 1948. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82 , 18691893.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gutowski, W. J., L. E. Branscome, and D. A. Stewart, 1992: Life cycles of moist baroclinic eddies. J. Atmos. Sci., 49 , 306319.

  • Hall, N. M. J., and P. D. Sardeshmukh, 1998: Is the time-mean Northern Hemisphere flow baroclinically unstable? J. Atmos. Sci., 55 , 4156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, N. M. J., B. J. Hoskins, P. J. Valdes, and C. A. Senior, 1994: Storm tracks in a high-resolution GCM with doubled carbon dioxide. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120 , 12091230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, N. M. J., P. J. Valdes, and B. Dong, 1996: Maintenance of the last great ice sheets: A UGAMP GCM study. J. Climate, 9 , 10041019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hartmann, D. L., 1974: Time spectral analysis of mid-latitude disturbances. Mon. Wea. Rev., 102 , 348362.

  • Hayashi, Y., and D. Golder, 1981: The effects of condensational heating on midlatitude transient waves in their mature stage: Control experiments with a GFDL GCM. J. Atmos. Sci., 38 , 25322539.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Held, I. M., 1975: Momentum transport by quasi-geostrophic eddies. J. Atmos. Sci., 32 , 14941496.

  • Held, I. M., . 1993: Large scale dynamics and global warming. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74 , 228241.

  • Held, I. M., S. W. Lyons, and S. Nigam, 1989: Transients and the extratropical response to El Niño. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 163174.

  • Held, I. M., M. Ting, and H. Wang, 2002: Northern winter stationary waves: Theory and modeling. J. Climate, 15 , 21252144.

  • Hinman, R., 1888: Eclectic Physical Geography. Van Antwerp, Bragg and Co., 382 pp.

  • Hoerling, M. P., and M. Ting, 1994: Organization of extratropical transients during El Niño. J. Climate, 7 , 745766.

  • Holopainen, E. O., 1990: Role of cyclone-scale eddies in the general circulation of the atmosphere: A review of recent observational studies. Extratropical Cyclones: The Erik Palmen Memorial Volume, C. W. Newton and E. O. Holopainen, Eds., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 48–62.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B. J., and P. J. Valdes, 1990: On the existence of storm tracks. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 18541864.

  • Hoskins, B. J., M. E. McIntyre, and A. W. Robertson, 1985: On the use and significance of isentropic potential vorticity maps. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 111 , 877946.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huerre, P., and P. A. Monkewitz, 1990: Local and global instabilities in spatially developing flows. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 22 , 473537.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • James, I. N., 1987: Suppression of baroclinic instability in horizontally sheared flows. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 37103720.

  • Kageyama, M., P. J. Valdes, G. Ramstein, C. Hewitt, and U. Wyputta, 1999: Northern Hemisphere storm tracks in present day and last glacial maximum climate simulations: A comparison of the European PMIP models. J. Climate, 12 , 742760.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klein, W. H., 1951: A hemispheric study of daily pressure variability at sea level and aloft. J. Meteor., 8 , 332346.

  • Klein, W. H., . 1957: Principal tracks and mean frequencies of cyclones and anticyclones in the Northern Hemisphere. U.S. Weather Bureau Reasearch Paper 40, 60 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klein, W. H., . 1958: The frequency of cyclones and anticyclones in relation to the mean circulation. J. Meteor., 15 , 98102.

  • Klinker, E., and P. D. Sardeshmukh, 1992: The diagnosis of mechanical dissipation in the atmosphere from large scale balance requirements. J. Atmos. Sci., 49 , 608627.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kung, E. C., 1977: Energy source in middle-latitude synoptic-scale disturbances. J. Atmos. Sci., 34 , 13521365.

  • Kushnir, Y., and I. M. Held, 1996: Equilibrium atmospheric response to North Atlantic SST anomalies. J. Climate, 9 , 12081220.

  • Latif, M., and T. P. Barnett, 1996: Decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America: Dynamics and predictability. J. Climate, 9 , 24072423.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, N-C., 1978: On the three-dimensional structure of the observed transient eddy statistics of the Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 35 , 19001923.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, N-C., . 1979: The structure and energetics of transient disturbances in the Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 36 , 982995.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, N-C., . 1988: Variability of the observed midlatitude storm tracks in relation to low-frequency changes in the circulation pattern. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 27182743.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, N-C., . 1997: Interactions between global SST anomalies and the midlatitude atmospheric circulation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 2133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, N-C., and E. O. Holopainen, 1984: Transient eddy forcing of the time-mean flow as identified by geopotential tendencies. J. Atmos. Sci., 41 , 313328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, N-C., and M. J. Nath, 1987: Frequency-dependence of the structure and temporal development of wintertime tropospheric fluctuations—Comparison of a GCM simulation with observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 251271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, N-C., . 1991: Variability of the baroclinic and barotropic transient eddy forcing associated with monthly changes in the midlatitude storm tracks. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 25892613.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, S., 1995a: Linear modes and storm tracks in a two-level primitive equation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 18411862.

  • Lee, S., . 1995b: Localized storm tracks in the absence of local instability. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 977989.

  • Lee, S., . 2000: Barotropic effects on atmospheric storm tracks. J. Atmos. Sci., 57 , 14201435.

  • Lee, S., and I. M. Held, 1993: Baroclinic wave packets in models and observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 14131428.

  • Lee, W-J., and M. Mak, 1996: The role of orography in the dynamics of storm tracks. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 17371750.

  • Lim, G. H., and J. M. Wallace, 1991: Structure and evolution of baroclinic waves as inferred from regression analysis. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 17181732.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, S-J., and R. T. Pierrehumbert, 1993: Is the midlatitude zonal flow absolutely unstable? J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 505517.

  • Lindzen, R. S., and B. J. Farrell, 1980: A simple approximate result for the maximum growth rate of baroclinic instabilities. J. Atmos. Sci., 37 , 16481654.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mak, M., 1982: On moist quasi-geostrophic baroclinic instability. J. Atmos. Sci., 39 , 20282037.

  • Mak, M., . 1998: Influence of surface sensible heat flux on incipient marine cyclogenesis. J. Atmos. Sci., 55 , 820834.

  • Manabe, S., J. Smagorinsky, and R. Strickler, 1965: Simulated climatology of a general circulation model with a hydrologic cycle. Mon. Wea. Rev., 93 , 769798.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Metz, W., 1989: Low frequency anomalies of atmospheric flow and the effects of cyclone-scale eddies: A canonical correlation analysis. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 10271041.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakamura, H., 1992: Midwinter suppression of baroclinic wave activity in the Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 49 , 16291642.

  • Nakamura, H., and J. M. Wallace, 1990: Observed changes in the baroclinic wave activity during the life cycles of low-frequency circulation anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 11001116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakamura, H., . 1993: Synoptic behavior of baroclinic eddies during blocking onsets. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 18921903.

  • Nakamura, H., and T. Izumi, 1999: Out-of-phase relationship between the interannual fluctuations in poleward heat transport by the east Asian winter monsoon and Pacific stormtrack. Preprints, 12th Conf. on Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics, New York, NY, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 139–142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Namias, J., and P. F. Clapp, 1944: Studies of the motion and development of long waves in the westerlies. J. Meteor., 1 , 5777.

  • Oort, A. H., and J. P. Peixoto, 1983: Global angular momentum and energy balance requirements from observations. Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 25, Academic Press, 355–490.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Orlanski, I., and J. Katzfey, 1991: The life cycle of a cyclone wave in the Southern Hemisphere. Part I: Eddy energy budget. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 19721998.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Orlanski, I., and E. K. M. Chang, 1993: Ageostrophic geopotential fluxes in downstream and upstream development of baroclinic waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 212225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Palmer, T. N., and Z. Sun, 1985: A modeling and observational study of the relationship between sea surface temperature in the north west Atlantic and the atmospheric general circulation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 111 , 947975.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pedlosky, J., 1987: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. Springer-Verlag, 710 pp.

  • Peixoto, J. P., and A. H. Oort, 1992: Physics of Climate. American Institute of Physics, 520 pp.

  • Peng, S., and J. S. Whitaker, 1999: Mechanisms determining the atmospheric response to midlatitude SST anomalies. J. Climate, 12 , 13931408.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peng, S., W. A. Robinson, and M. P. Hoerling, 1997: The modeled atmospheric response to midlatitude SST anomalies and its dependence on background circulation states. J. Climate, 10 , 971987.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petterssen, S., 1956: Weather Analysis and Forecasting. Vol. 1. 2d ed. McGraw-Hill, 422 pp.

  • Petterssen, S., and S. J. Smebye, 1971: On the development of extratropical cyclones. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 97 , 457482.

  • Pierrehumbert, R. T., 1984: Local and global baroclinic instability of zonally varying flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 41 , 21412162.

  • Pierrehumbert, R. T., . 1985: The effect of local baroclinic instability on zonal inhomogeneities of vorticity and temperature. Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 29, Academic Press, 165–182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pierrehumbert, R. T., . 1986: Spatially amplifying modes of the Charney baroclinic instability problem. J. Fluid Mech., 170 , 293317.

  • Pierrehumbert, R. T., and K. L. Swanson, 1995: Baroclinic instability. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 27 , 419467.

  • Plumb, R. A., 1983: A new look at the energy cycle. J. Atmos. Sci., 40 , 16691688.

  • Plumb, R. A., . 1986: Three-dimensional propagation of transient quasi-geostrophic eddies and its relationship with the eddy forcing of the time-mean flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 43 , 16571678.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Randel, W. J., and J. L. Stanford, 1985: An observational study of medium-scale wave dynamics in the Southern Hemisphere summer. Part I: Wave structure and energetics. J. Atmos. Sci., 42 , 11721188.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reed, R. J., M. T. Stoelinga, and Y-W. Kuo, 1992: A model aided study of the origin and evolution of the anomalously high PV in the inner region of a rapidly deepening marine cyclone. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120 , 893913.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rex, D. F., 1950: Blocking action in the middle troposphere and its effect upon regional climate. I. An aerological study of blocking action. Tellus, 2 , 196211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, W. A., 1991: The dynamics of low-frequency variability in a simple model of the global atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 429441.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, W. A., . 2000: Review of WETS—The Workshop on Extra-Tropical SST anomalies. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81 , 567577.

  • Seager, R., Y. Kushnir, M. Visbeck, N. Naik, J. Miller, G. Krahmann, and H. Cullen, 2000: Causes of Atlantic Ocean climate variability between 1958 and 1998. J. Climate, 13 , 28452862.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simmons, A. J., and B. J. Hoskins, 1978: The life cycles of some nonlinear baroclinic waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 35 , 14541477.

  • Simmons, A. J., . 1979: The downstream and upstream development of unstable baroclinic waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 36 , 12391254.

  • Smith, P. J., 1969: On the contribution of a limited region to the global energy budget. Tellus, 21 , 202207.

  • Stephenson, D. B., and I. M. Held, 1993: GCM response of northern winter stationary waves and storm tracks to increasing amounts of carbon dioxide. J. Climate, 6 , 18591870.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Straus, D. M., and J. Shukla, 1997: Variations of midlatitude transient dynamics associated with ENSO. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 777790.

  • Swanson, K. L., and R. T. Pierrehumbert, 1997: Lower-tropospheric heat transport in the Pacific storm track. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 15331543.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Swanson, K. L., P. J. Kushner, and I. M. Held, 1997: Dynamics of barotropic storm tracks. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 791810.

  • Thompson, D. J., and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25 , 12971300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, D. J., . 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate, 13 , 10001016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, D. J., and G. C. Hegerl, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part II: Trends. J. Climate, 13 , 10181036.

  • Thorncroft, C. D., B. J. Hoskins, and M. E. McIntyre, 1993: Two paradigms of baroclinic-wave life-cycle behaviour. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 119 , 1755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ting, M., and N-C. Lau, 1993: A diagnostic and modeling study of the monthly mean wintertime anomalies appearing in a 100-year GCM experiment. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 28452867.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., 1991: Storm tracks in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 21592178.

  • Trenberth, K. E., and J. W. Hurrell, 1994: Decadal atmosphere–ocean variations in the Pacific. Climate Dyn., 9 , 303319.

  • Trenberth, K. E., G. W. Branstator, D. Karoly, A. Kumar, N-C. Lau, and C. Ropelewski, 1998: Progress during TOGA in understanding and modeling global teleconnections associated with tropical sea surface temperatures. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 1429114324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Uccellini, L. W., 1986: The possible influences of upstream upper level baroclinic processes on the development of the QE II storm. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114 , 10191027.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallace, J. M., G. H. Lim, and M. L. Blackmon, 1988: Relationship between cyclone tracks, anticyclone tracks, and baroclinic waveguides. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 439462.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitaker, J. S., and A. Barcilon, 1992: Type B cyclogenesis in a zonally varying flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 49 , 18771892.

  • Whitaker, J. S., and R. M. Dole, 1995: Organization of storm tracks in zonally varying flows. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 11781191.

  • Whitaker, J. S., and P. D. Sardeshmukh, 1998: A linear theory of extratropical synoptic eddy statistics. J. Atmos. Sci., 55 , 237258.

  • Whitaker, J. S., L. W. Uccellini, and K. F. Brill, 1988: A model-based diagnostic study of the rapid development phase of the Presidents' Day cyclone. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116 , 23372365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitaker, L. M., and L. H. Horn, 1982: Atlas of Northern Hemisphere Extratropical Cyclone Activity, 1958–1977. Dept. of Meteorology, University of Wisconsin, 65 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitaker, L. M., . 1984: Northern Hemisphere extratropical cyclone activity for four midseason months. J. Climatol., 4 , 297310.

  • Yeh, T-C., 1949: On energy dispersion in the atmosphere. J. Meteor., 6 , 116.

  • Zhang, Yua, J. M. Wallace, and D. S. Battisti, 1997: ENSO-like interdecadal variability: 1900–93. J. Climate, 10 , 10041020.

  • Zhang, Yun, and I. M. Held, 1999: A linear stochastic model of a GCM's midlatitude storm tracks. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 34163435.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 2298 760 106
PDF Downloads 1936 670 73

Storm Track Dynamics

Edmund K. M. ChangDepartment of Meteorology, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida

Search for other papers by Edmund K. M. Chang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Sukyoung LeeDepartment of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania

Search for other papers by Sukyoung Lee in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Kyle L. SwansonAtmospheric Sciences Group, University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Search for other papers by Kyle L. Swanson in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

This paper reviews the current state of observational, theoretical, and modeling knowledge of the midlatitude storm tracks of the Northern Hemisphere cool season.

Observed storm track structures and variations form the first part of the review. The climatological storm track structure is described, and the seasonal, interannual, and interdecadal storm track variations are discussed. In particular, the observation that the Pacific storm track exhibits a marked minimum during midwinter when the background baroclinicity is strongest, and a new finding that storm tracks exhibit notable variations in their intensity on decadal timescales, are highlighted as challenges that any comprehensive storm track theory or model has to be able to address.

Physical processes important to storm track dynamics make up the second part of the review. The roles played by baroclinic processes, linear instability, downstream development, barotropic modulation, and diabatic heating are discussed. Understanding of these processes forms the core of our current theoretical knowledge of storm track dynamics, and provides a context within which both observational and modeling results can be interpreted. The eddy energy budget is presented to show that all of these processes are important in the maintenance of the storm tracks.

The final part of the review deals with the ability to model storm tracks. The success as well as remaining problems in idealized storm track modeling, which is based on a linearized dynamical system, are discussed. Perhaps on a more pragmatic side, it is pointed out that while the current generation of atmospheric general circulation models faithfully reproduce the climatological storm track structure, and to a certain extent, the seasonal and ENSO-related interannual variations of storm tracks, in-depth comparisons between observed and modeled storm track variations are still lacking.

Current affiliation: ITPA/MSRC, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York

Corresponding author address: Dr. Edmund K. M. Chang, ITPA/MSRC, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000. Email: kmchang@notes.cc.sunysb.edu

Abstract

This paper reviews the current state of observational, theoretical, and modeling knowledge of the midlatitude storm tracks of the Northern Hemisphere cool season.

Observed storm track structures and variations form the first part of the review. The climatological storm track structure is described, and the seasonal, interannual, and interdecadal storm track variations are discussed. In particular, the observation that the Pacific storm track exhibits a marked minimum during midwinter when the background baroclinicity is strongest, and a new finding that storm tracks exhibit notable variations in their intensity on decadal timescales, are highlighted as challenges that any comprehensive storm track theory or model has to be able to address.

Physical processes important to storm track dynamics make up the second part of the review. The roles played by baroclinic processes, linear instability, downstream development, barotropic modulation, and diabatic heating are discussed. Understanding of these processes forms the core of our current theoretical knowledge of storm track dynamics, and provides a context within which both observational and modeling results can be interpreted. The eddy energy budget is presented to show that all of these processes are important in the maintenance of the storm tracks.

The final part of the review deals with the ability to model storm tracks. The success as well as remaining problems in idealized storm track modeling, which is based on a linearized dynamical system, are discussed. Perhaps on a more pragmatic side, it is pointed out that while the current generation of atmospheric general circulation models faithfully reproduce the climatological storm track structure, and to a certain extent, the seasonal and ENSO-related interannual variations of storm tracks, in-depth comparisons between observed and modeled storm track variations are still lacking.

Current affiliation: ITPA/MSRC, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York

Corresponding author address: Dr. Edmund K. M. Chang, ITPA/MSRC, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000. Email: kmchang@notes.cc.sunysb.edu

Save