Climatology and Interannual Variability in the Intensity of Synoptic-Scale Processes in the North Atlantic from the NCEP–NCAR Reanalysis Data

Sergey K. Gulev P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, Moscow, Russia, and Institut für Meereskunde, Kiel, Germany

Search for other papers by Sergey K. Gulev in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Thomas Jung Institut für Meereskunde, Kiel, Germany

Search for other papers by Thomas Jung in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Eberhard Ruprecht Institut für Meereskunde, Kiel, Germany

Search for other papers by Eberhard Ruprecht in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

North Atlantic synoptic-scale processes are analyzed by bandpassing 6-hourly NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data (1958–98) for several synoptic ranges corresponding to ultrahigh-frequency variability (0.5–2 days), synoptic-scale variability (2–6 days), slow synoptic processes (6–12 days), and low-frequency variability (12–30 days). Climatological patterns of the intensity of synoptic processes are not collocated for different ranges of variability, especially in the lower troposphere. Intensities of synoptic processes demonstrate opposite trends between the North American coast and in the northeast Atlantic. Although north of 40°N the intensity of ultrahigh-frequency variability and synoptic-scale processes show similar interannual variability, further analysis indicates that secular changes, and decadal-scale and interannual variability in the intensities of synoptic processes may not be necessarily consistent for different synoptic timescales. Magnitudes of winter ultrahigh-frequency variability are highly correlated with the intensity of synoptic-scale processes in the 1960s and early 1970s. However, they show little agreement with each other during the last two decades, pointing to the remarkable change in atmospheric variability over the North Atlantic in late 1970s. North Atlantic ultrahigh-frequency variability in winter is highly correlated with surface temperature gradient anomalies in the Atlantic–American sector. These gradients are computed from the merged fields of SST and surface temperature over the continent. They demonstrate a dipolelike pattern associated with the North American coast on one hand, with the subpolar SST front and continental Canada on the other. High-frequency variability and its synoptic counterpart demonstrate different relationships with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Reliability of these results and their sensitivity to the filtering procedures are addressed by comparison to radiosonde data and application of alternative filters.

Corresponding author address: Sergey Gulev, P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, 36 Nakhimovsky Ave., 117851 Moscow, Russia. Email: gul@sail.msk.ru

Abstract

North Atlantic synoptic-scale processes are analyzed by bandpassing 6-hourly NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data (1958–98) for several synoptic ranges corresponding to ultrahigh-frequency variability (0.5–2 days), synoptic-scale variability (2–6 days), slow synoptic processes (6–12 days), and low-frequency variability (12–30 days). Climatological patterns of the intensity of synoptic processes are not collocated for different ranges of variability, especially in the lower troposphere. Intensities of synoptic processes demonstrate opposite trends between the North American coast and in the northeast Atlantic. Although north of 40°N the intensity of ultrahigh-frequency variability and synoptic-scale processes show similar interannual variability, further analysis indicates that secular changes, and decadal-scale and interannual variability in the intensities of synoptic processes may not be necessarily consistent for different synoptic timescales. Magnitudes of winter ultrahigh-frequency variability are highly correlated with the intensity of synoptic-scale processes in the 1960s and early 1970s. However, they show little agreement with each other during the last two decades, pointing to the remarkable change in atmospheric variability over the North Atlantic in late 1970s. North Atlantic ultrahigh-frequency variability in winter is highly correlated with surface temperature gradient anomalies in the Atlantic–American sector. These gradients are computed from the merged fields of SST and surface temperature over the continent. They demonstrate a dipolelike pattern associated with the North American coast on one hand, with the subpolar SST front and continental Canada on the other. High-frequency variability and its synoptic counterpart demonstrate different relationships with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Reliability of these results and their sensitivity to the filtering procedures are addressed by comparison to radiosonde data and application of alternative filters.

Corresponding author address: Sergey Gulev, P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, 36 Nakhimovsky Ave., 117851 Moscow, Russia. Email: gul@sail.msk.ru

Save
  • Agee, E. M., 1991: Trends in cyclone and anticyclone frequency and comparison with periods of warming and cooling over the Northern Hemisphere. J. Climate, 4 , 263267.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Akima, H., 1970: A new method of interpolation and smooth curve fitting based on local procedures. J. Appl. Comput. Math., 17 , 589602.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alpert, P. B., U. Neeman, and Y. Shau-El, 1990: Interannual variability of cyclone tracks in the Mediterranean. J. Climate, 3 , 14741478.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ayrault, F., F. Lalaurette, A. Joly, and C. Loo, 1995: North Atlantic ultra high frequency variability. Tellus, 47A , 671696.

  • Bacon, S., and D. J. T. Carter, 1991: Wave climate changes in the North Atlantic and North Sea. Int. J. Climatol., 11 , 545588.

  • Bacon, S., and D. J. T. Carter, . 1993: A connection between mean wave height and atmospheric pressure gradient in the North Atlantic. Int. J. Climatol., 13 , 423436.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, T. P., 1999: Comparison of near-surface air temperature variability in 11 coupled global climate models. J. Climate, 12 , 511518.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnston, A. G., and R. E. Livezey, 1987: Classification, seasonality and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 10831126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Battisti, D. S., U. S. Bhatt, and M. A. Alexander, 1995: A modeling study of the interannual variability in the wintertime North Atlantic Ocean. J. Climate, 8 , 30673083.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bjerknes, J., 1964: Atlantic air–sea interaction. Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 10, Academic Press, 1–82.

  • Blackmon, M. L., Y. H. Lee, J. M. Wallace, and H. H. Hsu, 1984: Horizontal structure of 500 mb height fluctuations with long, intermediate and short time scales. J. Atmos. Sci., 41 , 961979.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blender, R., K. Fraedrich, and F. Lunkeit, 1997: Identification of cyclone track regimes in the North Atlantic. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 123 , 727741.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Branstator, G., 1995: Organization of storm track anomalies by recurring low-frequency circulation anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 207226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Broccoli, A. J., N-C. Lau, and M. J. Nath, 1998: The cold ocean–warm land pattern: Model simulation and relevance to climate change detection. J. Climate, 11 , 27432763.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cayan, D., 1992a: Variability of latent and sensible heat fluxes estimated using bulk formulae. Atmos.–Ocean, 30 , 142.

  • Cayan, D., . 1992b: Latent and sensible heat flux anomalies over the northern oceans: The connection to monthly atmospheric circulation. J. Climate, 5 , 354369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christoph, M., U. Ulbrich, and P. Speth, 1997: Midwinter suppression of Northern Hemisphere storm track activity in the real atmosphere and in GCM experiments. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 15891599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • da Silva, A. M., and G. White, 1996: Intercomparison of surface marine fluxes from GEOS, NCEP/NCAR and ERA Reanalyses and COADS. Proc. WCRP Workshop on Air–Sea Flux Fields from Forcing Ocean Models and Validating GCMs, Reading, United Kingdom, World Meteorological Organization, WMO/TD-762, 19–24.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davis, R. E., B. R. Hayden, D. A. Gay, W. L. Phillips, and G. V. Jones, 1997: The North Atlantic subtropical anticyclone. J. Climate, 10 , 728744.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deser, C., and M. L. Blackmon, 1993: Surface climate variations over the North Atlantic Ocean during winter: 1900–1989. J. Climate, 6 , 17431753.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dickson, R. R., and J. Namias, 1976: North American influences on the circulation and climate of the North Atlantic sector. Mon. Wea. Rev., 104 , 12551265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duchon, C. E., 1979: Lanczos filtering in one and two dimensions. J. Appl. Meteor., 18 , 10161022.

  • Eden, C., and J. Willebrand, 2001: Mechanism of interannual to decadal variability of the North Atlantic circulation. J. Climate, 14 , 22662280.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Geng, Q., and M. Sugi, 2001: Variability of the North Atlantic cyclone activity in winter analyzed from NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data. J. Climate, 14 , 38633873.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gibson, J. K., P. Kallberg, S. Uppala, A. Nomura, A. Hernandes, and A. Serrano, 1997: ERA description. ECMWF Reanalysis Project Report Series 1, 77 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Giordani, H., and G. Caniaux, 2001: Sensitivity of cyclogenesis to sea surface temperature in the northwestern Atlantic. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 12731295.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glowienska-Hense, R., 1990: Oscillations in the Atlantic–European SLP. Tellus, 42A , 497507.

  • Groetzner, A., M. Latif, and T. P. Barnett, 1998: A decadal climate cycle in the North Atlantic Ocean as simulated by the ECHO coupled GCM. J. Climate, 11 , 831847.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gulev, S. K., 1994: Influence of space–time averaging on the ocean–atmosphere exchange estimates in the North Atlantic midlatitudes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24 , 12361255.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gulev, S. K., . 1997a: Climate variability of the intensity of synoptic processes in the North Atlantic midlatitudes. J. Climate, 10 , 574592.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gulev, S. K., . 1997b: Climatologically significant effects of space–time averaging in the North Atlantic sea–air heat flux fields. J. Climate, 10 , 27432763.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gulev, S. K., and L. Hasse, 1999: Changes of wind waves in the North Atlantic over the last 30 years. Int. J. Climatol., 19 , 720744.

  • Gulev, S. K., O. Zolina, and S. Grigoriev, 2001: Extratropical cyclone variability in the Northern Hemisphere winter from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data. Climate Dyn., 17 , 795810.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Halliwell, G. R., 1997: Decadal and multidecadal North Atlantic SST anomalies driven by standing and propagating basin-scale atmospheric anomalies. J. Climate, 10 , 24052411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Halliwell, G. R., and D. A. Mayer, 1996: Frequency response properties of forced climatic SST anomaly variability in the North Atlantic. J. Climate, 9 , 35763587.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hannachi, A., and B. Legras, 1995: Simulated annealing and weather regimes classification. Tellus, 47A , 955973.

  • Harnack, R. P., and A. J. Broccoli, 1979: Associations between sea surface temperature gradient and overlying midtropospheric circulation in the North Pacific region. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9 , 12321242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hense, A., R. Glowienka-Hense, and H. von Storch, 1990: Northern Hemisphere atmospheric response to changes of the Atlantic Ocean SST on decadal time scales. Climate Dyn., 4 , 157174.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heyen, H., E. Zorita, and H. von Storch, 1996: Statistical downscaling of monthly mean North Atlantic air-pressure to sea-level anomalies in the Baltic Sea. Tellus, 48A , 312323.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hilmer, M., and T. Jung, 2000: Evidence for a recent change in the link between the North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic sea ice. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27 , 989992.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B. J., and P. D. Sardeshmukh, 1987: Transient eddies and the seasonal mean rotational flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 44 , 328338.

  • Hoskins, B. J., and P. J. Valdes, 1990: On the existence of storm tracks. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 18541864.

  • Hoskins, B. J., and K. I. Hodges, 2002: New perspectives on the Northern Hemisphere winter storm tracks. J. Atmos. Sci., 59 , 10411061.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B. J., I. N. James, and G. H. White, 1983: The shape, propagation and mean flow interaction of large scale weather systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 40 , 15951612.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hurrell, J. W., 1995a: Transient eddy forcing of the rotational flow during northern winter. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 22862300.

  • Hurrell, J. W., . 1995b: Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: Regional temperatures and precipitation. Science, 269 , 676679.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hurrell, J. W., . 1996: Influence of variations in extratropical wintertime teleconnections on Northern Hemisphere temperature. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23 , 665668.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hurrell, J. W., and H. van Loon, 1997: Decadal variations on climate associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Climatic Change, 36 , 301326.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iwasaka, N., and J. M. Wallace, 1995: Large-scale air–sea interaction in the Northern Hemisphere from a view point of variations of surface heat flux by SVD analysis. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 73 , 781794.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, P. D., M. New, D. E. Parker, S. Martin, and I. G. Rigor, 1999: Surface air temperature and its changes over the past 150 years. Rev. Geophys., 37 , 173199.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalnay, E., and Coauthors. 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 437471.

  • Kodera, K., H. Koide, and H. Yoshimura, 1999: Northern Hemisphere winter circulation associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation and stratospheric polar night jet. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26 , 443446.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koide, H., and K. Kodera, 1999: A SVD analysis between the winter NH 500-hPa height and surface temperature fields. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 77 , 4761.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kushnir, Y., 1994: Interdecadal variations in North Atlantic sea surface temperature and associated atmospheric conditions. J. Climate, 7 , 141157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kushnir, Y., V. J. Cardone, J. G. Greenwood, and M. A. Cane, 1997: The recent increase in the North Atlantic wave height. J. Climate, 10 , 21072113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lambert, S., 1996: Intense extratropical Northern Hemisphere winter cyclone events: 1899–1991. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 2131921325.

  • Lanczos, C., 1956: Applied Analysis. Prentice-Hall, 539 pp.

  • Lanzante, J. R., 1983: A further assessment of the association between sea surface temperature gradient and the overlying midtropospheric circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13 , 19711974.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Latif, M., and T. P. Barnett, 1994: Causes of decadal variability over the North Pacific and North America. Science, 266 , 634637.

  • Liu, Q., and T. Opsteegh, 1995: Interannual and decadal variations of blocking activity in a quasi-geostrophic model. Tellus, 47A , 941954.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maechel, H., A. Kapala, and H. Flohn, 1998: Behavior of the centres of action above the Atlantic since 1881. Part I: Characteristics of seasonal and interannual variability. Int. J. Climatol., 18 , 122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murakami, M., 1979: Large-scale aspects of deep convective activity over the GATE area. Mon. Wea. Rev., 107 , 9941013.

  • Peng, S., and J. Fyfe, 1996: The coupled patterns between sea level pressure and sea surface temperature in the midlatitude North Atlantic. J. Climate, 9 , 18241839.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robertson, A. W., and W. Metz, 1990: Transient eddy feedbacks derived from linear theory and observations. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 929950.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robertson, A. W., C. R. Mechoro, and Y-J. Kim, 2000: The influence of Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies on the North Atlantic oscillation. J. Climate, 13 , 122138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodwell, M. J., D. P. Rowell, and C. K. Folland, 1999: Oceanic forcing of the wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation and European climate. Nature, 398 , 320323.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rogers, E., and L. F. Bosart, 1986: An investigation of explosively deepening oceanic cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114 , 702718.

  • Rogers, J. C., 1984: The association between the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Southern Oscillation in the Northern Hemisphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112 , 19992015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rogers, J. C., . 1997: North Atlantic storm track variability and its association to the North Atlantic oscillation and climate variability of northern Europe. J. Climate, 10 , 16351647.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sanders, F., 1986: Explosive cyclogenesis in the west-central North Atlantic Ocean, 1981–84. Part I: Composite structure and mean behavior. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114 , 17811794.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schinke, H., 1993: On the occurrence of deep cyclones over Europe and the North Atlantic in the period 1930–1991. Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 66 , 223237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Serreze, M. C., F. Carse, R. G. Barry, and J. C. Rogers, 1997: Icelandic low cyclone activity: Climatological features, linkages with the NAO, and relationships with recent changes in the Northern Hemisphere circulation. J. Climate, 10 , 453464.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simmons, A., and B. J. Hoskins, 1978: Life cycles of some nonlinear baroclinic waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 35 , 414432.

  • Smith, T. M., R. W. Reynolds, R. E. Livezey, and D. S. Stokes, 1996: Reconstruction of historical sea surface temperatures using empirical orthogonal functions. J. Climate, 9 , 14031420.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smyth, P., K. Ide, and M. Ghil, 1999: Multiply regimes in the Northern Hemisphere height fields via mixture model clustering. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 37043723.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stein, O., and A. Hense, 1994: A reconstructed time series of the number of extreme low pressure events since 1880. Meteor. Z., 3 , 4346.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stephenson, D. B., V. Pavan, and R. Bojariu, 2000: Is the North Atlantic Oscillation a random walk? Int. J. Climatol., 20 , 118.

  • Sutton, R. T., and M. R. Allen, 1997: Decadal predictability of the North Atlantic sea surface temperature and climate. Nature, 388 , 563567.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, A. H., and J. A. Stephens, 1998: North Atlantic Oscillation and the latitude of the Gulf Stream. Tellus, 50A , 134142.

  • Thompson, D. W., and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25 , 12971300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ting, M., and S. Peng, 1995: Dynamics of the early and middle winter atmospheric responses to the northwest Atlantic SST anomalies. J. Climate, 8 , 22392254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., 1991: Storm tracks in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 48 , 21592178.

  • Trenberth, K. E., and D. A. Paolino, 1980: The Northern Hemisphere sea-level pressure data set: Trends, errors and discontinuities. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108 , 855872.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ueno, K., 1993: Interannual variability of surface cyclone tracks, atmospheric circulation patterns, and precipitation patterns in winter. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 71 , 655671.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ulbrich, U., and M. Christoph, 1999: A shift of the NAO and increasing storm track activity over Europe due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. Climate Dyn., 15 , 551559.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Loon, H., and J. C. Rogers, 1978: The seesaw in winter temperatures between Greenland and Northern Europe. Part I: General description. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106 , 296310.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Venzke, S., M. R. Allen, R. T. Sutton, and D. P. Rowell, 1998: The atmospheric response over the North Atlantic to decadal changes in sea surface temperature. Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie Rep. 255, Hamburg, Germany, 46 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • von Storch, H., and F. W. Zwiers, 1999: Statistical Analysis in Climate Research. Cambridge University Press, 503 pp.

  • von Storch, H., and Coauthors. 1993a: Changing statistics of storms in the North Atlantic. Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie Rep. 116, Hamburg, Germany, 19 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • von Storch, H., E. Zorita, and U. Cubasch, 1993b: Downscaling of global climate change estimates to regional scales: An application to Iberian rainfall in wintertime. J. Climate, 6 , 11611171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallace, J. M., G-H. Lim, and M. Blackmon, 1988: Relationship between cyclone tracks, anticyclone tracks and baroclinic waveguides. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 439462.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallace, J. M., C. Smith, and Q. Jiang, 1990: Spatial patterns of atmosphere–ocean interaction in the northern winter. J. Climate, 3 , 990998.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallace, J. M., C. Smith, and C. S. Bretherton, 1992: Singular value decomposition of wintertime sea surface temperature and 500-mb height anomalies. J. Climate, 5 , 561576.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallace, J. M., Y. Zhang, and J. A. Renwick, 1995: Dynamic contribution to hemispheric mean temperature trends. Science, 270 , 780783.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • White, G., 1999: Long-term trends in the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis. Proc. Second Int. Conf. on Reanalyses, Reading, United Kingdom, World Meteorological Organization WCRP-109 (WMO/TD985), 54–57.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woodruff, S. D., H. F. Diaz, J. D. Elms, and S. J. Worley, 1998: COADS Release 2 data and metadata enhancements for improvements of marine surface flux fields. Phys. Chem. Earth, 23 , 517526.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yau, M. K., and M. Jean, 1989: Synoptic aspects and physical processes in the rapidly intensifying cyclone of 6–8 March 1986. Atmos.–Ocean, 27 , 5986.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zorita, E., V. Kharin, and H. von Storch, 1992: The atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature in the North Atlantic area in winter: Their interaction and relevance for Iberian precipitation. J. Climate, 5 , 10971108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 290 53 2
PDF Downloads 171 33 5