• Bottomley, M., C. K. Folland, J. Hsiung, R. E. Newell, and D. E. Parker. 1990. Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas “GOSSTA.”. Joint project of the U.K. Meteorological Office and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 20 pp. and 313 plates.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cai, W. and P. H. Whetton. 2001. Modes of SST variability and the fluctuation of global mean temperature. Climate Dyn. 17:889901.

  • Delworth, T. L., R. J. Stouffer, K. W. Dixon, M. J. Spelman, T. R. Knutson, A. J. Broccoli, P. J. Kushner, and R. T. Wetherald. 2002. Review of simulations of climate variablility and change with the GFDL R30 coupled climate model. Climate Dyn. 19:555574.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duffy, P. B., C. Doutriaux, I. K. Fodor, and B. D. Santer. 2001. Effect of missing data on estimates of near-surface temperature change since 1900. J. Climate 14:28092814.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Folland, C. K. and D. E. Parker. 1995. Correction of instrumental biases in historical sea surface temperature data. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 121:319367.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Folland, C. K., D. E. Parker, and F. E. Kates. 1984. Worldwide marine surface temperature fluctuations 1856–1981. Nature 310:670673.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Folland, C. K., R. W. Reynolds, M. Gordon, and D. E. Parker. 1993. A study of six operational sea surface temperature analyses. J. Climate 6:96113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Folland, C. K. Coauthors,. 2001. Global temperature change and its uncertainties since 1861. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28:26212624.

  • Hansen, B., W. R. Turrell, and S. Østerhus. 2001. Decreasing overflow from the Nordic seas into the Atlantic Ocean through the Faroe Bank channel since 1950. Nature 411:927930.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaplan, A., Y. Kushnir, M. A. Cane, and M. B. Blumenthal. 1997. Reduced space optimal analysis for historical data sets: 136 years of Atlantic sea surface temperatures. J. Geophys. Res. 102:2783527860.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaplan, A., M. A. Cane, Y. Kushnir, A. C. Clement, M. B. Blumenthal, and B. Rajagopalan. 1998. Analyses of global sea surface temperature 1856–1991. J. Geophys. Res. 103:1856718589.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levitus, S., J. I. Antonov, T. J. Boyer, and C. Stephens. 2000. Warming of the world ocean. Science 287:22252229.

  • Manabe, S. and R. J. Stouffer. 1994. Multiple-century response of a coupled ocean–atmosphere model to an increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide. J. Climate 7:523.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murphy, A. H. and E. S. Epstein. 1989. Skill scores and correlation coefficients in model verification. Mon. Wea. Rev. 117:572581.

  • North, G. R., T. L. Bell, R. F. Cahalan, and F. J. Moeng. 1982. Sampling errors in the estimation of empirical orthogonal functions. Mon. Wea. Rev. 110:699706.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parker, D. E., P. D. Jones, C. K. Folland, and A. Bevan. 1994. Interdecadal changes of surface temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res. 99:1437314399.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rayner, N. A., D. E. Parker, E. B. Horton, C. K. Folland, L. V. Alexander, D. P. Rowell, E. C. Kent, and A. Kaplan. 2003. Global analyses of SST sea ice and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res., in press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reynolds, R. W. and T. M. Smith. 1994. Improved global sea surface temperature analyses using optimum interpolation. J. Climate 7:929948.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reynolds, R. W., N. A. Rayner, T. M. Smith, D. C. Stokes, and W. Wang. 2002. An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis. J. Climate 15:16091625.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Slutz, R. J., S. J. Lubker, J. D. Hiscox, S. D. Woodruff, R. L. Jenne, D. H. Joseph, P. M. Steurer, and J. D. Elms. 1985. COADS: Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set. Release 1, 262 pp. [Available from Climate Research Program, Environmental Research Laboratories, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303.].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, T. M. and R. W. Reynolds. 1998. A high-resolution global sea surface temperature climatology for the 1961–90 base period. J. Climate 11:33203323.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, T. M. and R. W. Reynolds. 2002. Bias corrections for historic sea surface temperatures based on marine air temperatures. J. Climate 15:7387.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, T. M., R. W. Reynolds, R. E. Livezey, and D. C. Stokes. 1996. Reconstruction of historical sea surface temperatures using empirical orthogonal functions. J. Climate 9:14031420.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, T. M., R. E. Livezey, and S. S. Shen. 1998. An improved method for analyzing sparse and irregularly distributed SST data on a regular grid: The tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Climate 11:17171729.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, T. M., T. R. Karl, and R. W. Reynolds. 2002. How accurate are climate simulations? Science 296:483484.

  • Thiébaux, H. J. 1997. The power of the duality in spatial-temporal estimation. J. Climate 10:567573.

  • Thiébaux, H. J. and M. A. Pedder. 1987. Spatial Objective Analysis with Applications in Atmospheric Science. Academic Press, 299 pp.

  • Van den Dool, H. M., S. Saha, and Å Johansson. 2000. Empirical orthogonal teleconnections. J. Climate 13:14211435.

  • Wolter, K. 1997. Trimming problems and remedies in COADS. J. Climate 10:19801997.

  • Woodruff, S. D., H. F. Diaz, J. D. Elms, and S. J. Worley. 1998. COADS Release 2 data and metadata enhancements for improvements of marine surface flux fields. Phys. Chem. Earth 23:517527.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yasunaka, S. and K. Hanawa. 2002. Regime shifts found in the Northern Hemisphere SST field. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan 80:119135.

  • Zhang, Y., J. M. Wallace, and D. S. Battisti. 1997. ENSO-like interdecadal variability: 1900–93. J. Climate 10:10041020.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 547 248 23
PDF Downloads 356 202 7

Extended Reconstruction of Global Sea Surface Temperatures Based on COADS Data (1854–1997)

View More View Less
  • 1 National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North Carolina
Restricted access

Abstract

A monthly extended reconstruction of global SST (ERSST) is produced based on Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) release 2 observations from the 1854–1997 period. Improvements come from the use of updated COADS observations with new quality control procedures and from improved reconstruction methods. In addition error estimates are computed, which include uncertainty from both sampling and analysis errors. Using this method, little global variance can be reconstructed before the 1880s because data are too sparse to resolve enough modes for that period. Error estimates indicate that except in the North Atlantic ERSST is of limited value before 1880, when the uncertainty of the near-global average is almost as large as the signal. In most regions, the uncertainty decreases through most of the period and is smallest after 1950.

The large-scale variations of ERSST are broadly consistent with those associated with the Hadley Centre Global Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature (HadISST) reconstruction produced by the Met Office. There are differences due to both the use of different historical bias corrections as well as different data and analysis procedures, but these differences do not change the overall character of the SST variations. Procedures used here produce a smoother analysis compared to HadISST. The smoother ERSST has the advantage of filtering out more noise at the possible cost of filtering out some real variations when sampling is sparse. A rotated EOF analysis of the ERSST anomalies shows that the dominant modes of variation include ENSO and modes associated with trends. Projection of the HadISST data onto the rotated eigenvectors produces time series similar to those for ERSST, indicating that the dominant modes of variation are consistent in both.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Thomas Smith, NCDC/NESDIS/NOAA, 151 Patton Ave., Asheville, NC 28801. tom.smith@noaa.gov

Abstract

A monthly extended reconstruction of global SST (ERSST) is produced based on Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) release 2 observations from the 1854–1997 period. Improvements come from the use of updated COADS observations with new quality control procedures and from improved reconstruction methods. In addition error estimates are computed, which include uncertainty from both sampling and analysis errors. Using this method, little global variance can be reconstructed before the 1880s because data are too sparse to resolve enough modes for that period. Error estimates indicate that except in the North Atlantic ERSST is of limited value before 1880, when the uncertainty of the near-global average is almost as large as the signal. In most regions, the uncertainty decreases through most of the period and is smallest after 1950.

The large-scale variations of ERSST are broadly consistent with those associated with the Hadley Centre Global Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature (HadISST) reconstruction produced by the Met Office. There are differences due to both the use of different historical bias corrections as well as different data and analysis procedures, but these differences do not change the overall character of the SST variations. Procedures used here produce a smoother analysis compared to HadISST. The smoother ERSST has the advantage of filtering out more noise at the possible cost of filtering out some real variations when sampling is sparse. A rotated EOF analysis of the ERSST anomalies shows that the dominant modes of variation include ENSO and modes associated with trends. Projection of the HadISST data onto the rotated eigenvectors produces time series similar to those for ERSST, indicating that the dominant modes of variation are consistent in both.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Thomas Smith, NCDC/NESDIS/NOAA, 151 Patton Ave., Asheville, NC 28801. tom.smith@noaa.gov

Save