• Baumgartner, A., , and E. Reichel, 1975: The World Water Balance. Elsevier, 179 pp.

  • Bryan, K., 1969: A numerical method for the study of the circulation of the world ocean. J. Comput. Phys., 4 , 347376.

  • Bryan, K., 1986: Poleward buoyancy transport in the ocean and mesoscale eddies. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 16 , 927933.

  • Bryden, H. L., , and E. C. Brady, 1989: Eddy momentum and heat fluxes and their effects on the circulation of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Mar. Res., 47 , 5579.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryden, H. L., , E. C. Brady, , and R. D. Pillsbury, 1989: Flow through the Strait of Gibraltar. Proc. Seminario Sobre la Oceanografia Fisica Del Estrecho De Gibraltar, Madrid, Spain, SECEG, 166–194.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collins, W., 2001: Effects of enhanced shortwave absorption on coupled simulations of the tropical climate system. J. Climate, 14 , 11471165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cox, M. D., 1984: A primitive equation, three dimensional model of the ocean. GFDL Ocean Group Tech. Rep. 1, 250 pp.

  • da Silva, A., , C. Young, , and S. Levitus, 1994: Algorithms and Procedures. Vol. 1, Atlas of Surface Marine Data, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 6, 83 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Cuevas, B., , D. Webb, , A. Coward, , C. Richmond, , and E. Rourke, 1999: The UK Ocean Circulation and Advanced Modelling Project (OCCAM). High Performance Computing, Proceedings of HPCI Conference 1998, R. Allan et al., Eds., Plenum Press, 325–335.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dickson, R. R., , and J. Brown, 1994: The production of North Atlantic deep water: Sources, rates and pathways. J. Geophys. Res., 99 , 1231912341.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Döös, K., , and D. J. Webb, 1994: The Deacon cell and the other meridional cells of the Southern Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24 , 429442.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ETOPO5, 1988: Global 5′ × 5′ depth and elevation. National Geophysical Data Center Technical Rep.

  • Firing, E., , S. E. Wijffels, , and P. Hacker, 1998: Equatorial subthermocline currents across the Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 2141321423.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ganachaud, A., , and C. Wunsch, 2000: The oceanic meridional overturning circulation, mixing, bottom water formation, and heat transport. Nature, 408 , 453457.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gent, P. R., , and J. C. McWilliams, 1990: Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20 , 150155.

  • Gordon, C., , C. Cooper, , C. A. Senior, , H. Banks, , J. M. Gregory, , T. C. Johns, , J. F. B. Mitchell, , and R. A. Wood, 2000: The simulation of SST, sea ice extents and ocean heat transports in a version of the Hadley Centre coupled model without flux adjustments. Climate Dyn., 16 , 147168.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Griffies, S. M., , A. Gnanadesikan, , R. C. Pacanowski, , V. D. Larichev, , J. K. Dukowicz, , and R. D. Smith, 1998: Isoneutral diffusion in a z-coordinate ocean model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28 , 805830.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, M. M., , and H. L. Bryden, 1982: Direct estimates and mechanisms of ocean heat transport. Deep-Sea Res., 29 , 339359.

  • Hogg, N. G., , G. Siedler, , and W. Zenk, 1999: Circulation and variability at the southern boundary of the Brazil Basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29 , 145157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, P. D., 1994: Hemispheric surface air temperature variations: A reanalysis and an update to 1993. J. Climate, 7 , 17941802.

  • Josey, S. A., , E. C. Kent, , D. Oakley, , and P. K. Taylor, 1996: A new global air–sea heat and momentum climatology. International WOCE Newsletter, No. 24, WOCE International Project Office, Southampton, United Kingdom, 3–5.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Josey, S. A., , E. C. Kent, , and P. K. Taylor, 1999: New insights into the ocean heat budget closure problem from analysis of the SOC air–sea flux climatology. J. Climate, 12 , 28562880.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kraus, E. B., , and J. S. Turner, 1967: A one dimensional model of the seasonal thermocline. Part II. Tellus, 19 , 98105.

  • Larsen, J. C., 1992: Transport and heat flux of the Florida Current at 27°N derived from cross-stream voltages and profiling data: Theory and observations. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, A338. 169236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Latif, M., , E. Roeckner, , U. Mikolajewicz, , and R. Voss, 2000: Tropical stabilization of the thermohaline circulation in a greenhouse warming simulation. J. Climate, 13 , 18091813.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leaman, K. D., , and J. E. Harris, 1990: On the average absolute transport of the deep western boundary currents east of Abaco Island, the Bahamas. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20 , 467475.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Legates, D. R., , and C. J. Willmott, 1990: Mean seasonal and spatial variability in global surface air temperature. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 41 , 1121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Legeckis, R., 1977: Long waves in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean: A view from a geostationary satellite. Science, 197 , 11791181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leonard, B., , M. MacVean, , and A. Lock, 1993: Positivity-preserving numerical schemes for multidimensional advection. NASA Tech. Memo 106055, ICOMP-93-05, Washington, DC.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levitus, S., , and T. P. Boyer, 1994: Temperature. Vol. 4, World Ocean Atlas 1994, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 4, 117 pp.

  • Levitus, S., , R. Burgett, , and T. P. Boyer, 1994: Salinity. Vol. 3, World Ocean Atlas 1994, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 3, 99 pp.

  • Maltrud, M. E., , R. D. Smith, , A. J. Semtner, , and R. C. Malone, 1998: Global eddy-resolving ocean simulations driven by 1985–1995 atmospheric winds. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 3082530853.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pacanowski, R. C., , and S. G. Philander, 1981: Parameterization of vertical mixing in numerical models of tropical oceans. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11 , 14431451.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pacanowski, R. C., , and S. M. Griffies, 1998: MOM 3.0 manual. NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ, 692 pp.

  • Pardaens, A. K., , H. T. Banks, , J. M. Gregory, , and P. R. Rowntree, 2003: Freshwater transports in HadCM3. Climate Dyn., 21 , 177195.

  • Parker, D. E., , C. K. Folland, , and M. Jackson, 1995: Marine surface temperature: Observed variations and data requirements. Climatic Change, 31 , 559600.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Philander, S. G. H., and Coauthors, 1985: Long waves in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 66 , 154156.

  • Pope, V. D., , and R. A. Stratton, 2002: The processes governing resolution sensitivity in a climate model. Climate Dyn., 19 , 211236.

  • Pope, V. D., , M. L. Gallani, , P. R. Rowntree, , and R. A. Stratton, 2000: The impact of new physical parametrizations in the Hadley Centre climate model—HadAM3. Climate Dyn., 16 , 123146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rahmstorf, S., 1996: On the freshwater forcing and transport of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Climate Dyn., 12 , 799811.

  • Rayner, N. A., , E. B. Horton, , D. E. Parker, , C. K. Folland, , and R. B. Hackett, 1996: Version 2.2 of the Global Sea-Ice and Sea Surface Temperature data set, 1903–1994. Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research CRTN 74, 35 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rayner, N. A., , D. E. Parker, , E. B. Horton, , C. K. Folland, , L. V. Alexander, , D. P. Rowell, , E. C. Kent, , and A. Kaplan, 2003: Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .4407, doi:10.1029/2002JD002670.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roberts, M. J., , and D. Marshall, 1998: Do we require adiabatic dissipation schemes in eddy-resolving ocean models? J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28 , 20502063.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roberts, M. J., , and D. Marshall, 2000: On the validity of downgradient eddy closures in ocean models. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , 2861328627.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roemmich, D., , and C. Wunsch, 1985: Two transatlantic sections: Meridional circulation and heat flux in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 32 , 619664.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roemmich, D., , S. Hautala, , and D. Rudnick, 1996: Northward abyssal transport through the Samoan Passage and adjacent regions. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 1403914055.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Semtner, A. J., 1976: A model for the thermodynamic growth of sea ice in numerical investigations of climate. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6 , 379389.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Semtner, A. J., , and R. M. Chervin, 1992: Ocean general circulation from a global eddy-resolving model. J. Geophys. Res., 97 , 54935550.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sloyan, B., , and S. Rintoul, 2001: The Southern Ocean limb of the global deep overturning circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31 , 143173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, R., , M. Maltrud, , F. Bryan, , and M. Hecht, 2000: Numerical simulation of the North Atlantic Ocean at 1/10°. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30 , 15321561.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, W. H. F., , and D. Sandwell, 1997: Global seafloor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth soundings. Science, 277 , 19561962.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stammer, D., 1997: Global characteristics of ocean variability estimated from regional TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter measurements. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27 , 17431769.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stammer, D., , R. Tokmakian, , A. J. Semtner, , and C. Wunsch, 1996: How well does a 1/4° global circulation model simulate large-scale oceanic observations? J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 2577925811.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stratton, R. A., 1999: A high resolution AMIP integration using the Hadley Centre model HadAM2b. Climate Dyn., 15 , 928.

  • Taylor, K. E., 2000: Summarizing multiple aspects of model performance in a single diagram. PCMDI, University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Rep. 55, Livermore, CA, 33 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thorpe, R. B., , J. M. Gregory, , T. C. Johns, , R. A. Wood, , and J. F. B. Mitchell, 2001: Mechanisms determining the Atlantic thermohaline circulation response to greenhouse gas forcing in a nonflux-adjusted coupled climate model. J. Climate, 14 , 31023116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K., , and C. Guillemot, 1998: Evaluation of the atmospheric moisture and hydrological cycle in the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. Climate Dyn., 14 , 213231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, W., , and M. J. McPhaden, 1999: The surface-layer heat balance in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Part I: Mean seasonal cycle. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29 , 18121831.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitworth, T., , W. D. Nowlin, , and S. J. Worley, 1982: The net transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current through Drake Passage. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 12 , 960971.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wijffels, S., 2001: Ocean transport of freshwater. Ocean Circulation and Climate, G. Siedler et al., Eds., Academic Press, 475–488.

  • Wijffels, S., , N. Bray, , S. Hautala, , G. Meyers, , and W. M. L. Morawitz, 1996: The WOCE Indonesian throughflow repeat hydrography sections: I10 and IR6. International WOCE Newsletter, No., 24, WOCE International Project Office, Southampton, United Kingdom, 25–28.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wyrtki, L., , and B. Kilonsky, 1984: Mean water and current structure during the Hawaii-to-Tahiti Shuttle experiment. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 14 , 242253.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, P., , and P. A. Arkin, 1997: Global precipitation: A 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 25392558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zenk, W., , G. Siedler, , B. Lenz, , and N. G. Hogg, 1999: Antarctic Bottom water flow through the Hunter Channel. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29 , 27852801.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 200 200 162
PDF Downloads 41 41 13

Impact of an Eddy-Permitting Ocean Resolution on Control and Climate Change Simulations with a Global Coupled GCM

View More View Less
  • 1 Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, Bracknell, Berkshire, United Kingdom
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Initial results are presented from a 150-yr control and an 80-yr transient simulation of a new global coupled climate model with an ocean model resolution of ⅓°, which is sufficient to permit ocean eddies to form. With no spinup procedure or flux correction, the coupled model remains close to radiative equilibrium, and the enhanced ocean resolution allows an improved ocean state to be simulated; this includes a general decrease in sea surface temperature errors compared to climatology and more realistic large-scale flows compared to previous lower-resolution models. However, the improvements in the atmospheric and coupled model climatology are less pronounced, with small improvements in atmospheric circulation counterbalanced by an El Niño–Southern Oscillation cycle that has peak power at too short a period and with too little power on longer time scales. With the model using exactly the same atmospheric component as a lower-resolution counterpart, the comparison gives some insight into the impact of ocean resolution on climate and suggests that a corresponding increase in atmospheric resolution may be needed before major changes to the coupled climatology are seen.

The transient climate change simulation shows some important regional differences in response compared to previous lower-resolution models. A less pronounced weakening to the meridional overturning in the North Atlantic leads to a smaller decrease in northward heat transport and enhances the surface temperature increase in the northern Europe–Atlantic region by 10% over the lower-resolution model. This may be connected to processes involved in deep-water formation in the Labrador and Nordic Seas.

Current affiliation: National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington, New Zealand

Corresponding author address: Malcolm Roberts, Hadley Centre, Met Office, London Road, Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2SY, United Kingdom. Email: malcolm.roberts@metoffice.com

Abstract

Initial results are presented from a 150-yr control and an 80-yr transient simulation of a new global coupled climate model with an ocean model resolution of ⅓°, which is sufficient to permit ocean eddies to form. With no spinup procedure or flux correction, the coupled model remains close to radiative equilibrium, and the enhanced ocean resolution allows an improved ocean state to be simulated; this includes a general decrease in sea surface temperature errors compared to climatology and more realistic large-scale flows compared to previous lower-resolution models. However, the improvements in the atmospheric and coupled model climatology are less pronounced, with small improvements in atmospheric circulation counterbalanced by an El Niño–Southern Oscillation cycle that has peak power at too short a period and with too little power on longer time scales. With the model using exactly the same atmospheric component as a lower-resolution counterpart, the comparison gives some insight into the impact of ocean resolution on climate and suggests that a corresponding increase in atmospheric resolution may be needed before major changes to the coupled climatology are seen.

The transient climate change simulation shows some important regional differences in response compared to previous lower-resolution models. A less pronounced weakening to the meridional overturning in the North Atlantic leads to a smaller decrease in northward heat transport and enhances the surface temperature increase in the northern Europe–Atlantic region by 10% over the lower-resolution model. This may be connected to processes involved in deep-water formation in the Labrador and Nordic Seas.

Current affiliation: National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Wellington, New Zealand

Corresponding author address: Malcolm Roberts, Hadley Centre, Met Office, London Road, Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2SY, United Kingdom. Email: malcolm.roberts@metoffice.com

Save