• Alexander, M. A., , and C. Deser, 1995: A mechanism for the recurrence of wintertime midlatitude SST anomalies. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 25 , 122137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alexander, M. A., , I. Blade, , M. Newman, , J. R. Lanzante, , N-C. Lau, , and J. D. Scott, 2002: The atmospheric bridge: The influence of ENSO teleconnections on air–sea interaction over the global oceans. J. Climate, 15 , 22052231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, T. P., , D. W. Pierce, , M. Latif, , D. Dommenget, , and R. Saravanan, 1999: Interdecadal interactions between the Tropics and midlatitudes in the Pacific basin. Geophys. Res. Lett, 26 , 615618.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bretherton, C., , and D. S. Battisti, 2000: An interpretation of the results from atmospheric general circulation models forced by the time history of the observed sea surface temperature distribution. Geophys. Res. Lett, 27 , 767770.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cayan, D. R., , S. A. Kammerdiener, , M. D. Dettinger, , J. M. Caprio, , and D. H. Peterson, 2001: Changes in the onset of spring in the western United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 82 , 399415.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chao, Y., , M. Ghil, , and J. C. McWilliams, 2000: Pacific interdecadal variability in this century's sea surface temperatures. Geophys. Res. Lett, 27 , 22612264.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cole, J. E., , R. B. Dunbar, , T. R. McClanahan, , and N. A. Muthiga, 2000: Tropical Pacific forcing of decadal SST variability in the western Indian Ocean over the past two centuries. Science, 287 , 617619.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deser, C., , and J. M. Wallace, 1990: Large-scale atmospheric circulation features of warm and cold episodes in the tropical Pacific. J. Climate, 3 , 12541281.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deser, C., , and M. S. Timlin, 1997: Atmosphere–ocean interaction on weekly timescales in the North Atlantic and Pacific. J. Climate, 10 , 393408.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deser, C., , M. A. Alexander, , and M. S. Timlin, 1996: Upper-ocean thermal variations in the North Pacific during 1970–1991. J. Climate, 9 , 18401855.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deser, C., , M. A. Alexander, , and M. S. Timlin, 2003: Understanding the persistence of sea surface temperature anomalies in midlatitudes. J. Climate, 16 , 5772.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dettinger, M. D., , D. R. Cayan, , G. M. McCabe, , and J. A. Marengo, 2000: Multiscale streamflow variability associated with El Niño/ Southern Oscillation. El Niño and the Southern Oscillation— Multiscale Variability and Global and Regional Impacts, H. F. Diaz and V. Markgraf, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 113– 146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Folland, C. K., , and D. E. Parker, 1995: Correction of instrumental biases in historical sea surface temperature data. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc, 121 , 319367.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frankignoul, C., 1985: Sea surface temperature anomalies, planetary waves and air–sea feedback in middle latitudes. Rev. Geophys, 23 , 357390.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frankignoul, C., , and K. Hasselmann, 1977: Stochastic climate models. Part 2. Application to sea-surface temperature variability and thermocline variability. Tellus, 29 , 284305.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frankignoul, C., , E. Kestenare, , N. Sennéchael, , G. de Coëtlogon, , and F. D'Andrea, 2000: On decadal-scale ocean–atmosphere interactions in the extended ECHAM1/LSG climate simulation. Climate Dyn, 16 , 333354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garreaud, R. D., , and D. S. Battisti, 1999: Interannual and interdecadal variability of the tropospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Climate, 12 , 21132123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graham, N. E., , T. P. Barnett, , R. Wilde, , M. Ponater, , and S. Schubert, 1994: On the roles of tropical and midlatitude SSTs in forcing interannual to interdecadal variability in the winter Northern Hemisphere circulation. J. Climate, 7 , 14161441.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gu, D. F., , and S. G. H. Philander, 1997: Interdecadal climate fluctuations that depend on exchanges between the Tropics and extratropics. Science, 275 , 805807.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houghton, J. T., , L. G. Meira Filho, , B. A. Callander, , N. Harris, , A. Kattenberg, , and K. Maskell, 1996: Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, 572 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hulme, M., , T. J. Osborn, , and T. C. Johns, 1998: Precipitation sensitivity to global warming: Comparison of observations with HadCM2 simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett, 25 , 33793382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, P. D., 1994: Hemispheric surface air temperature variations: A reanalysis and an update to 1993. J. Climate, 7 , 17941802.

  • Kaplan, A., , M. Cane, , Y. Kushnir, , A. C. Clement, , M. B. Blumenthal, , and B. Rajagopalan, 1998: Analyses of global sea surface temperature 1856–1991. J. Geophys. Res, 103 , 1856718589.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kleeman, R., , J. P. McCreary, , and B. A. Klinger, 1999: A mechanism for generating ENSO decadal variability. Geophys. Res. Lett, 26 , 17431746.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klein, S. A., , and D. L. Hartmann, 1993: The seasonal cycle of low stratiform clouds. J. Climate, 6 , 15871605.

  • Knutson, T. R., , and S. Manabe, 1998: Model assessment of decadal variability and trends in the tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Climate, 11 , 22732296.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Latif, M., , and T. P. Barnett, 1996: Decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America: Dynamics and predictability. J. Climate, 9 , 24072423.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, Z., , L. Wu, , R. Gallimore, , and R. Jacob, 2002: Search for the origins of Pacific decadal climate variability. Geophys. Res. Lett.,29, 1404, doi:10.1029/2001GL013735.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mantua, N. J., , and S. R. Hare, 2002: The Pacific Decadal Oscillation. J. Oceanogr, 58 , 3544.

  • Mantua, N. J., , S. R. Hare, , Y. Zhang, , J. M. Wallace, , and R. C. Francis, 1997: A Pacific interdecadal oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 78 , 10691079.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McPhaden, M. J., , and D. Zhang, 2002: Slowdown of the meridional overturning circulation in the upper Pacific Ocean. Nature, 415 , 603608.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, A. J., , D. R. Cayan, , T. P. Barnett, , N. E. Graham, , and J. M. Oberhuber, 1994: Interdecadal variability of the Pacific Ocean: Model response to observed heat flux and wind stress anomalies. Climate Dyn, 10 , 287302.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Minobe, S., 1997: A 50–70 year climatic oscillation over the North Pacific and North America. Geophys. Res. Lett, 24 , 683686.

  • Newman, M., , G. P. Compo, , and M. A. Alexander, 2003: ENSO-forced variability of the Pacific decadal oscillation. J. Climate, 16 , 38533857.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nitta, T., , and S. Yamada, 1989: Recent warming of tropical sea surface temperature and its relationship to the Northern Hemisphere circulation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 67 , 375383.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nonaka, M., , S-P. Xie, , and J. P. McCreary, 2002: Decadal variations in the subtropical cells and equatorial Pacific SST. Geophys. Res. Lett.,29, 1116, doi:10.1029/2001GL013717.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, S., , and C. B. Leovy, 2004: Marine low-cloud anomalies associated with ENSO. J. Climate, 17 , 34483469.

  • Peng, S., , W. A. Robinson, , and M. P. Hoerling, 1997: The modeled atmospheric response to midlatitude SST anomalies and its dependence on background circulation states. J. Climate, 10 , 971987.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pierce, D. W., , T. P. Barnett, , N. Schneider, , R. Saravanan, , D. Dommenget, , and M. Latif, 2001: The role of ocean dynamics in producing decadal climate variability in the North Pacific. Climate Dyn, 18 , 5170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robertson, A. W., 1996: Interdecadal variability over the North Pacific in a multi-century climate simulation. Climate Dyn, 12 , 227241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schneider, N., , A. J. Miller, , M. A. Alexander, , and C. Deser, 1999: Subduction of decadal North Pacific temperature anomalies: Observations and dynamics. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 29 , 10561070.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., 1984: Some effects of finite sample size and persistence on meteorological statistics. Part I: Autocorrelations. Mon. Wea. Rev, 112 , 23592368.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., , and D. A. Paolino Jr., 1980: The Northern Hemisphere sea-level pressure data set: Trends, errors and discontinuities. Mon. Wea. Rev, 108 , 855872.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., , and J. W. Hurrell, 1994: Decadal atmospheric–ocean variations in the Pacific. Climate Dyn, 9 , 303319.

  • Trenberth, K. E., , and J. Caron, 2000: The Southern Oscillation revisited: Sea level pressures, surface temperatures, and precipitation. J. Climate, 13 , 43584365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., , G. W. Branstator, , D. Karoly, , A. Kumar, , N-C. Lau, , and C. Ropelewski, 1998: Progress during TOGA in understanding and modeling global teleconnections associated with tropical sea surface temperatures. J. Geophys. Res, 103 , 1429114324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Villalba, R., , R. D'Arrigo, , E. R. Cook, , G. Wiles, , and G. C. Jacoby, 1999: Inter-decadal climate oscillations along the extra-tropical western coasts of the Americas: Evidence from tree rings over the past four centuries. Preprints, 10th Symp. on Global Change Studies,Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., CD-ROM, P. 1.3.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vimont, D. J., , D. S. Battisti, , and A. C. Hirst, 2001: Footprinting: A seasonal connection between the Tropics and mid-latitudes. Geophys. Res. Lett, 28 , 39233936.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woodruff, S. D., , R. J. Slutz, , R. L. Jenne, , and P. M. Steurer, 1987: A comprehensive ocean–atmosphere data set. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 68 , 521527.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wright, P. B., , J. M. Wallace, , T. P. Mitchell, , and C. Deser, 1988: Correlation structure of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation phenomenon. J. Climate, 1 , 609626.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, P., , and P. A. Arkin, 1997: Global precipitation: A 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 78 , 25392558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, D., , and M. J. McPhaden, 2002: Slowdown of the meridional overturning circulation in the upper Pacific Ocean. Nature, 415 , 603608.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, Y., , J. M. Wallace, , and D. S. Battisti, 1997: ENSO-like interdecadal variability: 1900–93. J. Climate, 10 , 10041020.

  • Zwiers, F. W., , and H. von Storch, 1995: Taking serial correlation into account in tests of the mean. J. Climate, 8 , 336351.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 277 277 24
PDF Downloads 147 147 17

Pacific Interdecadal Climate Variability: Linkages between the Tropics and the North Pacific during Boreal Winter since 1900

View More View Less
  • 1 Climate and Global Dynamics Division, NCAR, Boulder, Colorado
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

This study examines the tropical linkages to interdecadal climate fluctuations over the North Pacific during boreal winter through a comprehensive and physically based analysis of a wide variety of observational datasets spanning the twentieth century. Simple difference maps between epochs of high sea level pressure over the North Pacific (1900–24 and 1947–76) and epochs of low pressure (1925–46 and 1977–97) are presented for numerous climate variables throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific region, including rainfall, cloudiness, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea level pressure. The results support the notion that the Tropics play a key role in North Pacific interdecadal climate variability. In particular, SST anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean and southeast Pacific Ocean, rainfall and cloudiness anomalies in the vicinity of the South Pacific convergence zone, stratus clouds in the eastern tropical Pacific, and sea level pressure differences between the tropical southeast Pacific and Indian Oceans all exhibit prominent interdecadal fluctuations that are coherent with those in sea level pressure over the North Pacific. The spatial patterns of the interdecadal tropical climate anomalies are compared with those associated with ENSO, a predominantly interannual phenomenon; in general, the two are similar with some differences in relative spatial emphasis. Finally, a published 194-yr coral record in the western tropical Indian Ocean is shown to compare favorably with the twentieth-century instrumental records, indicating the potential for extending knowledge of tropical interdecadal climate variability to earlier time periods.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Clara Deser, Climate and Global Dynamics Division, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307. Email: cdeser@ucar.edu

Abstract

This study examines the tropical linkages to interdecadal climate fluctuations over the North Pacific during boreal winter through a comprehensive and physically based analysis of a wide variety of observational datasets spanning the twentieth century. Simple difference maps between epochs of high sea level pressure over the North Pacific (1900–24 and 1947–76) and epochs of low pressure (1925–46 and 1977–97) are presented for numerous climate variables throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific region, including rainfall, cloudiness, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea level pressure. The results support the notion that the Tropics play a key role in North Pacific interdecadal climate variability. In particular, SST anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean and southeast Pacific Ocean, rainfall and cloudiness anomalies in the vicinity of the South Pacific convergence zone, stratus clouds in the eastern tropical Pacific, and sea level pressure differences between the tropical southeast Pacific and Indian Oceans all exhibit prominent interdecadal fluctuations that are coherent with those in sea level pressure over the North Pacific. The spatial patterns of the interdecadal tropical climate anomalies are compared with those associated with ENSO, a predominantly interannual phenomenon; in general, the two are similar with some differences in relative spatial emphasis. Finally, a published 194-yr coral record in the western tropical Indian Ocean is shown to compare favorably with the twentieth-century instrumental records, indicating the potential for extending knowledge of tropical interdecadal climate variability to earlier time periods.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Clara Deser, Climate and Global Dynamics Division, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307. Email: cdeser@ucar.edu

Save