• Anderson, S P., R A. Weller, and R. Lukas, 1996: Surface buoyancy forcing and the mixed layer in the western Pacific warm pool: Observation and one-dimensional model results. J. Climate, 9 , 30563085.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berliand, M E., and T G. Berliand, 1952: Determining the net longwave radiation of the earth with consideration of the effect of cloudiness (in Russian). Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geofiz., 1 , 6478.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bernie, D J., S J. Woolnough, J M. Slingo, and E. Guilyardi, 2005: Modeling diurnal and intraseasonal variability of the ocean mixed layer. J. Climate, 18 , 11901202.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bretherton, C S., C. Smith, and J M. Wallace, 1992: An intercomparison of methods for finding coupled patterns in climate data. J. Climate, 5 , 541560.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davidson, N E., and H H. Hendon, 1989: Downstream development in the Southern Hemisphere monsoon during FGGE/WMONEX. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117 , 14581470.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fairall, C W., E F. Bradley, D P. Rogers, J B. Edson, and G S. Young, 1996: Bulk parameterization of air–sea fluxes for Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 37473764.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flatau, M., P J. Flatau, P. Phoebus, and P P. Niiler, 1997: The feedback between equatorial convection and local radiative and evaporative processes: The implications for intraseasonal oscillations. J. Atmos. Sci., 54 , 23732386.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fu, X., and B. Wang, 2004: Differences of boreal summer intraseasonal oscillations simulated in an atmosphere–ocean coupled model and an atmosphere-only model. J. Climate, 17 , 12631271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, J D., A J. Matthews, and D J. Karoly, 2001: The modulation of tropical cyclone activity in the Australian region by the Madden–Julian oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 29702982.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hendon, H H., 2000: Impact of air–sea coupling on the Madden–Julian oscillation in a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 57 , 39393952.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hendon, H H., and M L. Salby, 1994: The life cycle of the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 51 , 22252237.

  • Hendon, H H., and J. Glick, 1997: Intraseasonal air–sea interaction in the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. J. Climate, 10 , 647661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Inness, P M., and J M. Slingo, 2003: Simulation of the Madden–Julian oscillation in a coupled general circulation model. Part I: The importance of atmosphere–ocean interaction. J. Climate, 16 , 345364.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Inness, P M., J M. Slingo, E. Guilyardi, and J. Cole, 2003: Simulation of the Madden–Julian oscillation in a coupled general circulation model. Part II: The role of the basic state. J. Climate, 16 , 365382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 437471.

  • Kemball-Cook, S R., B. Wang, and X. Fu, 2002: Simulation of the intraseasonal oscillation in the ECHAM-4 model: The impact of coupling with an ocean model. J. Atmos. Sci., 59 , 14331453.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kessler, W S., and R. Kleeman, 2000: Rectification of the Madden–Julian oscillation into the ENSO cycle. J. Climate, 13 , 35603575.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kiladis, G N., and K M. Weickmann, 1992a: Circulation anomalies associated with tropical convection during northern winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120 , 19001923.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kiladis, G N., and K M. Weickmann, 1992b: Extratropical forcing of tropical Pacific convection during northern winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120 , 19241939.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kraus, E B., and J S. Turner, 1967: A one-dimensional model of the seasonal thermocline. Part II: The general theory and its consequences. Tellus, 19 , 98106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levitus, S., and T P. Boyer, 1994: Temperature. Vol. 4, World Ocean Atlas 1994, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 4, 117 pp.

  • Levitus, S., R. Burgett, and T P. Boyer, 1994: Salinity. Vol. 3, World Ocean Atlas 1994, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 3, 99 pp.

  • Liebmann, B., and C A. Smith, 1996: Description of a complete (interpolated) OLR dataset. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 12751277.

  • Liebmann, B., H H. Hendon, and J D. Glick, 1994: The relationship between tropical cyclones of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans and the Madden–Julian Oscillation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 72 , 401411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Madden, R A., and P R. Julian, 1994: Observations of the 40–50-day tropical oscillation—A review. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122 , 814837.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matthews, A J., 2000: Propagation mechanisms for the Madden–Julian oscillation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126 , 26372651.

  • Matthews, A J., 2004: The atmospheric response to observed intraseasonal tropical sea surface temperature anomalies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 .L14107, doi:10.1029/2004GL020474.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matthews, A J., and G N. Kiladis, 1999: The tropical–extratropical interaction between high-frequency transients and the Madden–Julian oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127 , 661677.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McPhaden, M J., 2002: Mixed layer temperature balance on intraseasonal timescales in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Climate, 15 , 26322647.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakazawa, T., 1988: Tropical super clusters within intraseasonal variations over the western Pacific. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 66 , 823839.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • North, G R., T L. Bell, R F. Cahalan, and F J. Moeng, 1982: Sampling errors in the estimation of empirical orthogonal functions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110 , 699706.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paulson, C A., and J J. Simpson, 1977: Irradiance measurements in the upper ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 7 , 952956.

  • Reynolds, R W., and T M. Smith, 1994: Improved global sea surface temperature analyses using optimum interpolation. J. Climate, 7 , 929948.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salby, M L., and H H. Hendon, 1994: Intraseasonal behavior of clouds, temperature, and motion in the Tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., 51 , 22072224.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shinoda, T., and H H. Hendon, 1998: Mixed layer modeling of intraseasonal variability in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. J. Climate, 11 , 26682685.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shinoda, T., and H H. Hendon, 2001: Upper-ocean heat budget in response to the Madden–Julian oscillation in the western equatorial Pacific. J. Climate, 14 , 41474165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shinoda, T., and H H. Hendon, 2002: Rectified wind forcing and latent heat flux produced by the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Climate, 15 , 35003508.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shinoda, T., H H. Hendon, and J. Glick, 1998: Intraseasonal variability of surface fluxes and sea surface temperature in the tropical western Pacific and Indian Oceans. J. Climate, 11 , 16851702.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Straub, K H., and G N. Kiladis, 2003: Interactions between the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation and higher-frequency tropical wave activity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 945960.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sui, C-H., X. Li, K-M. Lau, and D. Adamec, 1997: Multiscale air–sea interactions during TOGA COARE. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 448462.

  • Waliser, D E., and N E. Graham, 1993: Convective cloud systems and warm-pool sea-surface temperatures—Coupled interactions and self-regulation. J. Geophys. Res., 98 , 1288112893.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waliser, D E., K M. Lau, and J-H. Kim, 1999: The influence of coupled sea surface temperatures on the Madden–Julian oscillation: A model perturbation experiment. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 333358.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., and X. Xie, 1998: Coupled modes of the warm pool climate system. Part I: The role of air–sea interaction in maintaining Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Climate, 11 , 21162135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watterson, I G., 2002: The sensitivity of subannual and intraseasonal tropical variability to model ocean mixed layer depth. J. Geophys. Res., 107 .4020, doi:10.1029/2001JD000671.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wheeler, M., and G N. Kiladis, 1999: Convectively coupled equatorial waves: Analysis of clouds and temperature in the wavenumber-frequency domain. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 374399.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woolnough, S J., J M. Slingo, and B J. Hoskins, 2000: The relationship between convection and sea surface temperature on intraseasonal time scales. J. Climate, 13 , 20862104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, C., and S P. Anderson, 2003: Sensitivity of intraseasonal perturbations in SST to the structure of the MJO. J. Atmos. Sci., 60 , 21962207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 2 2 2
PDF Downloads 0 0 0

Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Interactions between the Madden–Julian Oscillation and Synoptic-Scale Variability over the Warm Pool

View More View Less
  • 1 School of Mathematics, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
  • | 2 Schools of Environmental Sciences and Mathematics, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
  • | 3 School of Mathematics, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
Restricted access

Abstract

A principal component analysis of the combined fields of sea surface temperature (SST) and surface zonal and meridional wind reveals that the dominant mode of intraseasonal (30 to 70 day) covariability during northern winter in the tropical Eastern Hemisphere is that of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). Regression calculations show that the submonthly (30-day high-pass filtered) surface wind variability is significantly modulated during the MJO. Regions of increased (decreased) submonthly surface wind variability propagate eastward, approximately in phase with the intraseasonal surface westerly (easterly) anomalies of the MJO. Because of the dependence of the surface latent heat flux on the magnitude of the total wind speed, this systematic modulation of the submonthly surface wind variability produces a significant component in the intraseasonal latent heat flux anomalies, which partially cancels the latent heat flux anomalies due to the slowly varying intraseasonal wind anomalies, particularly south of 10°S.

A method is derived that demodulates the submonthly surface wind variability from the slowly varying intraseasonal wind anomalies. This method is applied to the wind forcing fields of a one-dimensional ocean model. The model response to this modified forcing produces larger intraseasonal SST anomalies than when the model is forced with the observed forcing over large areas of the southwest Pacific Ocean and southeast Indian Ocean during both phases of the MJO. This result has implications for accurate coupled modeling of the MJO. A similar calculation is applied to the surface shortwave flux, but intraseasonal modulation of submonthly surface shortwave flux variability does not appear to be important to the dynamics of the MJO.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Crispian Batstone, Climate Diagnostics Center, University of Colorado, Campus Box 216, Boulder, CO 80309. Email: crispian.batstone@noaa.gov

Abstract

A principal component analysis of the combined fields of sea surface temperature (SST) and surface zonal and meridional wind reveals that the dominant mode of intraseasonal (30 to 70 day) covariability during northern winter in the tropical Eastern Hemisphere is that of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). Regression calculations show that the submonthly (30-day high-pass filtered) surface wind variability is significantly modulated during the MJO. Regions of increased (decreased) submonthly surface wind variability propagate eastward, approximately in phase with the intraseasonal surface westerly (easterly) anomalies of the MJO. Because of the dependence of the surface latent heat flux on the magnitude of the total wind speed, this systematic modulation of the submonthly surface wind variability produces a significant component in the intraseasonal latent heat flux anomalies, which partially cancels the latent heat flux anomalies due to the slowly varying intraseasonal wind anomalies, particularly south of 10°S.

A method is derived that demodulates the submonthly surface wind variability from the slowly varying intraseasonal wind anomalies. This method is applied to the wind forcing fields of a one-dimensional ocean model. The model response to this modified forcing produces larger intraseasonal SST anomalies than when the model is forced with the observed forcing over large areas of the southwest Pacific Ocean and southeast Indian Ocean during both phases of the MJO. This result has implications for accurate coupled modeling of the MJO. A similar calculation is applied to the surface shortwave flux, but intraseasonal modulation of submonthly surface shortwave flux variability does not appear to be important to the dynamics of the MJO.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Crispian Batstone, Climate Diagnostics Center, University of Colorado, Campus Box 216, Boulder, CO 80309. Email: crispian.batstone@noaa.gov

Save