Sensitivity of the Simulated Monsoons of 1987 and 1988 to Convective Parameterization Schemes in MM5

J. Venkata Ratnam Department of Mathematical Physics, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Search for other papers by J. Venkata Ratnam in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
and
K. Krishna Kumar NOAA–CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center, Boulder, Colorado

Search for other papers by K. Krishna Kumar in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

In this study the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU–NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) version 3.5.2 was used to simulate the Indian summer monsoon during the two contrasting years of 1987 and 1988, a dry year and a wet year, respectively. Three different convection parameterization schemes of Betts–Miller–Janjic, Kain–Fritsch, and Grell were used to study the sensitivity of monsoon to cumulus effects. The model was integrated for a period of 6 months, starting from three different initial conditions of 0000 UTC on 1, 2, and 3 May of each year using the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data as input. The 6-hourly reanalysis data were used to provide the lateral boundary conditions, and the observed weekly Reynolds sea surface temperature, linearly interpolated to 6 h, was used as the lower boundary forcing. The results show that all three cumulus schemes were able to simulate the interannual and intraseasonal variabilities in the monsoon with reasonable accuracy. However, the spatial distribution of the rainfall and its quantity were different in all the schemes. The Grell scheme underestimated the rainfall in both the years. The Kain–Fritsch scheme simulated the observed rainfall well during July and August, the peak monsoon months, of the year 1988 but overestimated the rainfall in June and September of 1988 and throughout the monsoon season of 1987. The Betts–Miller–Janjic scheme simulated less rainfall in the drought year of 1987 and overestimated the rainfall in June and July of 1988. The circulation patterns simulated by the Betts–Miller–Janjic and Kain–Fritsch schemes are comparable to the observed patterns.

Corresponding author address: Dr. J. Venkata Ratnam, Department of Mathematical Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Email: venkata.jayanthi@ucd.ie

Abstract

In this study the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU–NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) version 3.5.2 was used to simulate the Indian summer monsoon during the two contrasting years of 1987 and 1988, a dry year and a wet year, respectively. Three different convection parameterization schemes of Betts–Miller–Janjic, Kain–Fritsch, and Grell were used to study the sensitivity of monsoon to cumulus effects. The model was integrated for a period of 6 months, starting from three different initial conditions of 0000 UTC on 1, 2, and 3 May of each year using the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data as input. The 6-hourly reanalysis data were used to provide the lateral boundary conditions, and the observed weekly Reynolds sea surface temperature, linearly interpolated to 6 h, was used as the lower boundary forcing. The results show that all three cumulus schemes were able to simulate the interannual and intraseasonal variabilities in the monsoon with reasonable accuracy. However, the spatial distribution of the rainfall and its quantity were different in all the schemes. The Grell scheme underestimated the rainfall in both the years. The Kain–Fritsch scheme simulated the observed rainfall well during July and August, the peak monsoon months, of the year 1988 but overestimated the rainfall in June and September of 1988 and throughout the monsoon season of 1987. The Betts–Miller–Janjic scheme simulated less rainfall in the drought year of 1987 and overestimated the rainfall in June and July of 1988. The circulation patterns simulated by the Betts–Miller–Janjic and Kain–Fritsch schemes are comparable to the observed patterns.

Corresponding author address: Dr. J. Venkata Ratnam, Department of Mathematical Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Email: venkata.jayanthi@ucd.ie

Save
  • Annamalai, H., J M. Slingo, K R. Sperber, and K. Hodges, 1999: The mean evolution and variability of the Asian summer monsoon: Comparison of ECMWF and NCEP–NCAR reanalysis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127 , 11571186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arakawa, A., and W H. Schubert, 1974: Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment, Part I. J. Atmos. Sci., 31 , 674701.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, M E., J S. Kain, and M P. Kay, 2002: Properties of the convection scheme in NCEP’s Eta Model that affect forecast sounding interpretation. Wea. Forecasting, 17 , 10631079.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Betts, A K., and M J. Miller, 1986: A new convective adjustment Part II: Single column tests using GATE WAVE, BOMEX, ATEX and ARCTIC air mass data sets. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 112 , 693709.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bhaskaran, B., R G. Jones, J M. Murphy, and M. Noguer, 1996: Simulations of the Indian Summer monsoon using a nested climate model: Domain size experiments. Climate Dyn., 12 , 573587.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Charney, J G., and J. Shukla, 1981: Predictability of monsoons. Monsoon Dynamics, J. Lighthill and R. P. Pearce, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 99–109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Das, S., A K. Mitra, G R. Iyengar, and S. Mohandas, 2001: Comprehensive test of different cumulus parameterization schemes for the simulation of the Indian summer monsoon. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 78 , 227244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dudhia, J., 1996: A multi-layer soil temperature model for MM5. Preprints, Sixth Annual MM5 Users Workshop, Boulder, Colorado, NCAR, 45–50.

  • Gadgil, S., and A. Raju, 1995: Simulation of the Indian Summer Monsoon rainfall and its interannual variation in the AMIP runs. Proc. First Int. AMIP Conf., WMO/TD 732, Monterey, CA, World Meteorological Organisation, 161–166.

  • Gochis, D J., W J. Shuttleworth, and Z-L. Yang, 2002: Sensitivity of modeled North American monsoonal regional climate to convective parameterization. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130 , 12821298.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goswami, B N., and R. S. A. Mohan, 2001: Intraseasonal oscillations and interannual variability of the Indian summer monsoon. J. Climate, 14 , 11801198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goswami, B N., V. Krishnamurthy, and H. Annamalai, 1999: A broad scale circulation index for the interannual variability of the Indian summer monsoon. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125 , 611634.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grell, G., J. Dudhia, and D. Stauffer, 1994: A description of the Fifth-Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-398+STR, 138 pp.

  • Hong, S-Y., and H-L. Pan, 1996: Nonlocal boundary layer vertical diffusion in a medium-range forecast model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124 , 927945.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jacob, D., and R. Podzum, 1997: Sensitivity studies with the Regional Climate Model REMO. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 63 , 119129.

  • Janjic, Z I., 1994: The step-mountain eta coordinate model: Further developments of the convection, viscous sublayer, and turbulence closure schemes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122 , 927945.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jha, B., T N. Krishnamurti, and Z. Christides, 2000: A note on horizontal resolution dependence for monsoon rainfall simulations. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 74 , 1117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ji, Y., and A D. Vernekar, 1997: Simulation of the Asian summer monsoons of 1987 and 1988 with a regional model nested in a global GCM. J. Climate, 10 , 19651979.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Juang, H-M. H., S-Y. Hong, and M. Kanamitsu, 1997: The NCEP regional spectral model: An update. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 21252143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kain, J S., and J M. Fritsch, 1993: Convective parameterization for mesoscale models: The Kain–Fritsch scheme. The Representation of Cumulus Convection in Numerical Models, Meteor. Monogr., No. 46, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 165–170.

  • Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 437471.

  • Keshavamurthy, R N., and S T. Awade, 1974: Dynamical abnormalities associated with drought in the Asiatic summer monsoon. Indian J. Meteor. Geophys., 25 , 257266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krishna Kumar, K., M K. Soman, and K. Rupa Kumar, 1995: Seasonal forecasting of the Indian summer monsoon rainfall: A review. Weather, 50 , 449467.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krishnamurti, T N., and H H. Bhalme, 1976: Oscillations of a monsoon system. Part I: Observational aspects. J. Atmos. Sci., 33 , 19371954.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krishnamurti, T N., and J. Sanjay, 2003: A new approach to the cumulus parameterization issue. Tellus, 55A , 275300.

  • Krishnamurti, T N., H S. Bedi, and M. Subramaniam, 1989: The summer monsoon of 1987. J. Climate, 2 , 321340.

  • Krishnamurti, T N., H S. Bedi, and M. Subramaniam, 1990: The summer monsoon of 1988. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 42 , 1937.

  • Krishnan, R., C. Venkatesan, and R N. Keshavamurthy, 1998: Dynamics of upper tropospheric stationary wave anomalies induced by ENSO during the northern summers A GCM study. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Earth Planet. Sci., 107 , 6590.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, K M., K-M. Kim, and S. Yang, 2000: Dynamical and boundary forcing characteristics of regional components of the Asian summer monsoon. J. Climate, 13 , 24612482.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Legates, D R., and C J. Willmott, 1990: Mean seasonal and spatial variability in gauge-corrected, global precipitation. Int. J. Climatol., 10 , 111127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manabe, S., 1969: Climate and the ocean circulations, 1. The atmospheric circulation and the hydrology of the earth’s surface. Mon. Wea. Rev., 97 , 739774.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martin, G M., and M K. Soman, 2000: Effects of changing physical parameterization schemes on the simulation of the Asian summer monsoon in the UK Met Office unified model. Hadley Centre Tech. Note HCTN17, 48 pp.

  • Palmer, T N., 1994: Chaos and predictability in forecasting the monsoons. Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad., 60 , 373390.

  • Parthasarathy, B., R R. Kumar, and D R. Kothawale, 1992: Indian summer monsoon rainfall indices, 1871–1837. Meteor. Mag., 121 , 174186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parthasarathy, B., A A. Munot, and D R. Kothawale, 1994: All India monthly and seasonal rainfall series, 1871–1993. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 49 , 217224.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rajendran, K., R S. Nanjundiah, and J. Srinivasan, 2002: Comparison of seasonal and intraseasonal variation of tropical climate in NCAR CCM2 GCM with two different cumulus schemes. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 79 , 5786.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reynolds, R W., and T M. Smith, 1994: Improved global sea surface temperature analysis using optimum interpolation. J. Climate, 7 , 929948.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shukla, J., 1984: Predictability of time averages. Part II: The influence of boundary forcing. Problems and Prospects in the Long and Medium Range Weather Forecasting, D. M. Burridge and E. Kallen, Eds., Springer-Verlag, 115–206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sikka, D R., and S. Gadgil, 1980: On the maximum cloud zone and the ITCZ over Indian longitudes during the southwest monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108 , 18401853.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Slingo, J M., U C. Mohanty, M. Tiedke, and R P. Pearce, 1988: Prediction of the 1979 summer monsoon onset with modified parameterization schemes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116 , 328346.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sperber, K R., and T N. Palmer, 1996: Interannual tropical rainfall variability in general circulation model simulations associated with the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. J. Climate, 9 , 27272750.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sperber, K R., S. Hameed, G L. Potter, and J S. Boyle, 1994: Simulation of northern summer monsoon in the ECMWF model: Sensitivity to horizontal resolution. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122 , 24612481.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Srinivasan, J., and G L. Smith, 1996: The role of heat fluxes and moist static energy in tropical convergence zones. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124 , 20892099.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vernekar, A D., and Y. Ji, 1999: Simulation of the onset and intraseasonal variability of two contrasting summer monsoons. J. Climate, 12 , 17071725.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., and F. Zhen, 1999: Choice of South Asian summer monsoon indices. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 80 , 629638.

  • Wang, W., and N L. Seaman, 1997: A comparison study of convective parameterization schemes in a mesoscale model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 252278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, P J., and S. Yang, 1992: Monsoon and ENSO: Selectively interactive systems. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 118 , 877926.

  • Xie, P., and P. Arkin, 1997: Global precipitation: A 17-year monthly precipitation based on observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 25392558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 238 42 6
PDF Downloads 91 14 1