• Adam, J. C., , and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2003: Adjustment of global gridded precipitation for systematic bias. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .4257, doi:10.1029/2002JD002499.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Allen, R. G., , M. Smith, , A. Perrier, , and L. S. Pereira, 1994: An update for the definition of reference evapotranspiration. ICID Bull., 43 , 2,. 134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Allen, R. G., , L. S. Pereira, , D. Raes, , and M. Smith, 1998: Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop requirements. Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56, FAO, Rome, Italy, 300 pp.

  • Barros, A. P., , and D. P. Lettenmaier, 1994: Dynamic modelling of orographically induced precipitation. Rev. Geophys., 32 , 265284.

  • Budyko, M. I., 1951: On climatic factors of runoff (in Russian). Probl. Fiz. Geogr., 16 , 4148.

  • Budyko, M. I., 1974: Climate and Life. Academic Press, 508 pp.

  • Budyko, M. I., , and L. I. Zubenok, 1961: The determination of evaporation from the land surface. Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Geogr., 6 , 317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, M. P., , P. Xie, , J. E. Janowiak, , and P. A. Arkin, 2002: Global land precipitation: A 50-yr monthly analysis based on gauge observations. J. Hydrometeor., 3 , 249266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christensen, N. S., , A. W. Wood, , N. Voisin, , D. P. Lettenmaier, , and R. N. Palmer, 2004: Effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Colorado river basin. Climate Change, 62 , 1–3,. 337363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daly, C., , R. P. Neilson, , and D. L. Phillips, 1994: A statistical–topographic model for mapping climatological precipitation over mountainous terrain. J. Appl. Meteor., 33 , 140158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daly, C., , G. H. Taylor, , W. P. Gibson, , T. W. Parzybok, , G. L. Johnson, , and P. Pasteris, 2001: High-quality spatial climate data sets for the United States and beyond. Trans. ASAE, 43 , 19571962.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daly, C., , W. P. Gibson, , G. H. Taylor, , G. L. Johnson, , and P. Pasteris, 2002: A knowledge-based approach to the statistical mapping of climate. Int. J. Climatol., 16 , 841859.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dingman, S. L., 2002: Physical Hydrology. 2d ed. Prentice Hall, 646 pp.

  • Droogers, P., , and R. G. Allen, 2002: Estimating reference evapotranspiration under inaccurate data conditions. Irrig. Drain. Syst., 16 , 3345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunne, K. A., , and C. J. Willmott, 1996: Global distribution of plant-extractable water capacity of soil. Int. J. Climatol., 16 , 3345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Farr, T. G., , and M. Kobrick, 2000: Shuttle radar topography mission produces a wealth of data. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 81 , 583585.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fekete, B. M., , C. J. Vörösmarty, , and W. Grabs, 2000: Global, composite runoff fields based on observed river discharge and simulated water balances. Documentation for UNH-GRDC Composite Runoff Fields, v.1.0, Global Runoff Data Centre, Koblenz, Germany, 114 pp.

  • GTOPO30, cited. 1996: Global 30 arcsecond elevation data set. [Available online at http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/landdaac/gtopo30/gtopo30.html.].

  • Hargreaves, G. H., , and Z. A. Samani, 1982: Estimating potential evapotranspiration. J. Irrig. Drain. Eng., 108 , 225230.

  • Huffman, G. J., , R. F. Adler, , P. Arkin, , A. Chang, , R. Ferraro, , A. Gruber, , J. Janowiak, , and A. McNab, 1997: The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) combined precipitation dataset. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 520.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 437472.

  • Levis, S., , M. T. Coe, , and J. A. Foley, 1996: Hydrologic budget of a land surface model: A global application. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , D12,. 1692116930.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maurer, E. P., , A. W. Wood, , J. C. Adam, , D. P. Lettenmaier, , and B. Nijssen, 2002: A long-term hydrologically based dataset of land surface fluxes and states for the conterminous United States. J. Climate, 15 , 32373251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Milly, P. C., 1994: Climate, soil water storage, and the average annual water balance. Water Resour. Res., 30 , 24132156.

  • Mote, P. W., , A. F. Hamlet, , M. P. Clark, , and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2005: Declining mountain snowpack in western North America. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86 , 3949.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • New, M. G., , M. Hulme, , and P. D. Jones, 1999: Representing twentieth-century space–time climate variability. Part I: Development of a 1961–90 mean monthly terrestrial climatology. J. Climate, 12 , 829856.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • New, M. G., , M. Hulme, , and P. D. Jones, 2000: Representing twentieth-century space–time climate variability. Part II: Development of 1961–90 monthly grids of terrestrial surface climate. J. Climate, 13 , 22172238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nijssen, B., , G. O’Donnell, , D. P. Lettenmaier, , D. Lohmann, , and E. F. Wood, 2001a: Predicting the discharge of global rivers. J. Climate, 14 , 33073323.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nijssen, B., , R. Schnur, , and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2001b: Global retrospective estimation of soil moisture using the VIC land surface model, 1980–1993. J. Climate, 14 , 17901808.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ol’dekop, E. M., 1911: On evaporation from the surface of river basins (in Russian). Transactions on Meteorological Observations, University of Tartu, 4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oltchev, A., and Coauthors, 2002: The response of the water fluxes of the boreal forest region at the Volga’s source area to climatic and land-use changes. Phys. Chem. Earth, 27 , 675690.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roe, G. H., 2005: Orographic precipitation. Annu. Rev. Planet. Sci., 33 , 131.

  • Sankarasubramanian, A., , and R. M. Vogel, 2002: Annual hydroclimatology of the United States. Water Resour. Res., 38 , 10831094.

  • Schreiber, P., 1904: Ueber die Beziehungen zwischen dem Niederschlag und der Wasseruhrung der Flusse in Mitteleuropa. Meteor. Z., 21 , 441452.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sheffield, J., , A. D. Ziegler, , E. F. Wood, , and Y. Chen, 2004: Correction of the high-latitude rain day anomaly in the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis for land surface hydrological modeling. J. Climate, 17 , 38143828.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shuttleworth, W. J., 1992: Evaporation. Handbook of Hydrology, D. R. Maidment, Ed., McGraw-Hill, 4.1–4.53.

  • Slack, J. R., , and J. M. Landwehr, 1992: Hydro-climatic data network (HCDN): A U.S. geological survey streamflow dataset for the United States for the study of climate variations, 1874–1988. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Rep. 92-129, 193 pp.

  • Thornthwaite, C. W., 1948: An approach toward a rational classification of climate. Geogr. Rev., 38 , 5594.

  • Verdin, K. L., , and J. P. Verdin, 1999: A topological system for delineation and codication of the Earth’s river basins. J. Hydrol., 218 , 1–2,. 225230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vörösmarty, C. J., , B. Fekete, , and B. A. Tucker, cited. 1998: River discharge database, version 1.1 (RivDIS v1.0 supplement). [Available online at http://www.rivdis.sr.unh.edu/.].

  • Wallace, J. M., , and P. V. Hobbs, 1977: Atmospheric Science: An Introductory Survey. Academic Press, 467 pp.

  • Willmott, C. J., , and K. Matsuura, cited. 2001: Terrestrial air temperature and precipitation: monthly and annual time series (1950–1999) (version 1.02). Center for Climate Research, University of Delaware, Newark, DE. [Available online at http://climate.geog.udel.edu/~climate/html_pages/archive.html.].

  • Zhang, L., , W. R. Dawes, , and G. R. Walker, 2001: Response of mean annual evapotranspiration to vegetation changes at catchment scale. Water Resour. Res., 37 , 701708.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 277 277 40
PDF Downloads 177 177 21

Correction of Global Precipitation Products for Orographic Effects

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
  • | 2 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

Underestimation of precipitation in topographically complex regions plagues most gauge-based gridded precipitation datasets. Gauge locations are usually in or near population centers, which tend to lie at low elevations relative to the surrounding terrain. For hydrologic modeling purposes, the resulting bias can result in serious underprediction of observed flows. A hydrologic water balance approach to develop a globally consistent correction for the underestimation of gridded precipitation in mountainous regions is described. The adjustment is based on a combination of the catchment water balances and variations of the Budyko E/P versus/P curve. The method overlays streamflow measurements onto watershed boundaries and then performs watershed water balances to determine “true” precipitation. Rather than relying on a modeled runoff ratio, evaporation is estimated using the Budyko curves. The average correction ratios for each of 357 mountainous river basins worldwide are spatially distributed across the basins and are then interpolated to ungauged areas. Following application of adjustments for precipitation catch deficiencies, the correction ratios are used to scale monthly precipitation from an existing monthly global dataset (1979–99, 0.5° resolution). The correction for orographic effects resulted in a net increase in global terrestrial precipitation of 6.2% (20.2% in orographically influenced regions only) for the 1979–99 climatology. The approach developed here is applicable to any precipitation dataset in regions where good streamflow data exist. As a cautionary note, the correction factors are dataset dependent, and therefore the adjustments are strictly applicable only to the data from which they were derived.

Corresponding author address: Jennifer Adam, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Box 352700, Seattle, WA 98195-2700. Email: jadam@u.washington.edu

Abstract

Underestimation of precipitation in topographically complex regions plagues most gauge-based gridded precipitation datasets. Gauge locations are usually in or near population centers, which tend to lie at low elevations relative to the surrounding terrain. For hydrologic modeling purposes, the resulting bias can result in serious underprediction of observed flows. A hydrologic water balance approach to develop a globally consistent correction for the underestimation of gridded precipitation in mountainous regions is described. The adjustment is based on a combination of the catchment water balances and variations of the Budyko E/P versus/P curve. The method overlays streamflow measurements onto watershed boundaries and then performs watershed water balances to determine “true” precipitation. Rather than relying on a modeled runoff ratio, evaporation is estimated using the Budyko curves. The average correction ratios for each of 357 mountainous river basins worldwide are spatially distributed across the basins and are then interpolated to ungauged areas. Following application of adjustments for precipitation catch deficiencies, the correction ratios are used to scale monthly precipitation from an existing monthly global dataset (1979–99, 0.5° resolution). The correction for orographic effects resulted in a net increase in global terrestrial precipitation of 6.2% (20.2% in orographically influenced regions only) for the 1979–99 climatology. The approach developed here is applicable to any precipitation dataset in regions where good streamflow data exist. As a cautionary note, the correction factors are dataset dependent, and therefore the adjustments are strictly applicable only to the data from which they were derived.

Corresponding author address: Jennifer Adam, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Box 352700, Seattle, WA 98195-2700. Email: jadam@u.washington.edu

Save