• Alfaro, S. C., , and L. Gomes, 2001: Modeling mineral aerosol production by wind erosion: Emission intensities and aerosol size distribution in source areas. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 1807518084.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alfaro, S. C., , A. Gaudichet, , L. Gomes, , and M. Maillé, 1997: Modeling the size distribution of a soil aerosol produced by sandblasting. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , 1123911249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • An, Z. S., , and S. C. Porter, 1997: Millennial-scale climatic oscillations during the last interglaciation in central China. Geology, 25 , 603606.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • An, Z. S., , T. S. Liu, , Y. C. Lu, , S. C. Porter, , G. Kukla, , X. H. Wu, , and Y. M. Hua, 1990: The long-term paleomonsoon variation recorded by the loess-palaeosol sequence in central China. Quat. Int., 718 , 9195.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • An, Z. S., , J. E. Kutzbach, , W. L. Prell, , and S. C. Porter, 2001: Evolution of Asian monsoons and phased uplift of the Himalaya-Tibetan plateau since late Miocene times. Nature, 411 , 6266.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnston, A. G., , and R. E. Livezey, 1987: RPCA. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 10831126.

  • Cayan, D. R., , M. D. Dettinger, , H. F. Diaz, , and N. E. Graham, 1998: Decadal variability of precipitation over western North America. J. Climate, 11 , 31483165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cayan, D. R., , K. T. Redmond, , and L. G. Riddle, 1999: ENSO and hydrologic extremes in the western United States. J. Climate, 12 , 28812893.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, L. X., , W. Li, , and P. Zhao, 2001: Impact of winter thermal condition of the Tibetan Plateau on the zonal wind anomaly over equatorial Pacific. Sci. China, 44D , 400410.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chun, Y., , K-O. Boo, , J. Kim, , S-U. Park, , and M. Lee, 2001: Synopsis, transport and physical characteristics of Asian dust in Korea. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 1846118469.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ding, Y. H., 1994: Monsoons over China. Kluwer Academic, 419 pp.

  • Gong, S. L., , X. Y. Zhang, , T. L. Zhao, , I. G. McKendry, , D. A. Jaffe, , and N. M. Lu, 2003a: Characterization of soil dust distributions in China and its transport during ACE-ASIA 2. Model simulation and validation. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .4262, doi:10.1029/2002JD002633.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gong, S. L., and Coauthors, 2003b: Canadian Aerosol Module: A size-segregated simulation of atmospheric aerosol processes for climate and air quality models 1. Module development. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .4007, doi:10.1029/2001JD002002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guo, Q-Y., 1988: An analysis of East Asian monsoon index and its variation (in Chinese). Acta Geogr. Sin., 38 , 207217.

  • Huang, R., , and W. Li, 1988: Influence of heat source anomaly over the western tropical Pacific on the subtropical high over East Asia and its physical mechanism. Sci. Atmos. Sin., Special Issue, 107–116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kang, I., , and Y. Jeong, 1996: Association of interannual variations of temperature and precipitation in Seoul with principal modes of Pacific SST. J. Korean Meteor. Soc., 32 , 339345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • King, J. R., , V. V. Ivanov, , V. Kurashov, , R. J. Beamish, , and G. A. McFarlane, 1998: General circulation of the atmosphere over the North Pacific and its relationship to the Aleutian Low. North Pacific Anadromous Fish Doc. No. 318, 18 pp.

  • Lau, K. M., , and S. Yang, 1994: The influence of the Asian monsoon on the predictability of the tropical coupled ocean-atmosphere system. Conf. on Monsoon Variability, Triest, Italy, WCRP, WCRP-84, WMO/TD-619, 105–111.

  • Li, C., , S. Sun, , and M. Mu, 2001: Origin of the TBO-interaction between anomalous East-Asian winter monsoon and ENSO cycle. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 18 , 554566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, W., , and P. Zhai, 2003: Variability in occurrences of China’s spring sand/dust storm and its relationship with atmospheric general circulation. Acta Meteor. Sin., 17 , 396405.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, T. S., 1985: Loess and the Environment. China Ocean Press, 206 pp.

  • Mahowald, N., , C. Luo, , J. d. Corral, , and C. S. Zender, 2003: Interannual variability in atmospheric mineral from a 22-year model simulation and observational. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .4352, doi:10.1029/2002JD002821.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mantua, N. J., 1999: The Pacific decadal oscillation and climate forecasting for North America. Climate Risk Solutions, Vol. 1, No. 1, 10–13.

  • Mantua, N. J., , S. R. Hare, , Y. Zhang, , J. M. Wallace, , and R. C. Francis, 1997: A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 10691079.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marticorena, B., , and G. Bergametti, 1995: Modeling the atmospheric dust cycle. Part 1: Design of a soil-derived dust emission scheme. J. Geophys. Res., 100 , 1641516430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Merrill, J. T., , M. Uematsu, , and R. Bleck, 1989: Meteorological analysis of long-range transport of mineral aerosol over the North Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 94 , 85848598.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Natsagdorj, L., , D. Jugder, , and Y. S. Chung, 2003: Analysis of dust storms observed in Mongolia during 1937–1999. Atmos. Environ., 37 , 14011411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nitta, T. S., 1986: Long-term variations of cloud amount in the western Pacific region. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 64 , 373390.

  • Porter, S. C., , and Z. S. An, 1995: Correlation between climate events in the North Atlantic and China during the last glaciation. Nature, 375 , 305308.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qian, W., , L. Quan, , and S. Shi, 2002: Variability of the dust storm in China and climatic control. J. Climate, 15 , 12161229.

  • Ramage, C. S., 1971: Monsoon Meteorology. Academic Press, 296 pp.

  • Shi, N., , Q. Zhu, , and B. Wu, 1996: The East-Asian summer monsoon in relation to summer large scale weather-climate anomaly in China for last 40 year. J. Atmos. Sci. (China), 20 , 385394.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tao, S., , and Q. Zhang, 1998: Response of the East Asian summer monsoon to ENSO events (in Chinese). Sci. Atmos. Sin., 22 , 399407.

  • Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallance, 1998: The Arctic Oscillation signature in the winter geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25 , 12971300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tomita, T., , and T. Yasunari, 1996: Role of the East Asian northeast winter monsoon on the biennial oscillation of the ENSO/monsoon system. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 74 , 399413.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallace, J. M., , and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109 , 784812.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., , R. Wu, , and X. Fu, 2000: Pacific–East Asian teleconnection: How does ENSO affect East Asian climate? J. Climate, 13 , 15171536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, P. J., 1987: The variable and interactive monsoon. Monsoons, J. S. Fein and P. L. Stephens, Eds., Wiley-Interscience, 269–330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, P. J., , and S. Yang, 1992: Monsoon and ENSO: Selectively interactive systems. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 118 , 877926.

  • Webster, P. J., , V. O. Magana, , T. N. Palmer, , T. A. Tomas, , M. Yanai, , and T. Yasunari, 1998: Monsoons: Processes, predictability and prospects for prediction. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 1445114510.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wolter, K., , and M. S. Timlin, 1998: Measuring the strength of ENSO—How does 1997/98 rank? Weather, 53 , 315324.

  • Yasunari, T., , and Y. Seki, 1992: Role of the Asian Monsoon on the interannual variability of the global climate system. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 70 , 177189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, X. Y., , Z. S. An, , and J. J. Cao, 1997: Dust emission from Chinese desert sources linked to variations in atmospheric circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , 2804128047.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, X. Y., , R. Arimoto, , and Z. S. An, 1999: Glacial and interglacial patterns for Asian dust transport. Quat. Sci. Rev., 18 , 811819.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, X. Y., , H. Y. Lu, , R. Arimoto, , and S. L. Gong, 2002: Atmospheric dust loadings and their relationship to rapid oscillations of the Asian winter monsoon climate: Two 250-kyr loess records. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 202 , 637643.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, X. Y., , S. L. Gong, , T. L. Zhao, , R. Arimoto, , and Y. Q. Wang, 2003: Sources of Asian dust and role of climate change versus desertification in Asian dust emission. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 .2272, doi:10.1029/2003GL018206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, Y., , J. M. Wallace, , and D. S. Battisti, 1997: ENSO-like interdecadal variability: 1900–93. J. Climate, 10 , 10041020.

  • Zhao, C., , X. Dabu, , and Y. Li, 2004: Relationship between climatic factors and dust storm frequency in the Inner Mongolia of China. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 .L01103, doi:10.1029/2003GL018206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, T. L., , S. L. Gong, , X. Y. Zhang, , and I. G. Mckendry, 2003: Modeled size segregated wet and dry deposition budgets of soil dust aerosol during ACE-Asia 2001: Implications for trans-Pacific transport. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .8665, doi:10.1029/2002JD003363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, T. L., , S. L. Gong, , X. Y. Zhang, , J-P. Blanchet, , I. G. McKendry, , and Z. J. Zhou, 2006: A simulated climatology of Asian dust aerosol and its trans-Pacific transport. Part I: Mean climate and validation. J. Climate, 19 , 88103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhong, D. C., 1999: The dynamic changes and trends of modern desert in China (in Chinese). Adv. Earth Sci., 14 , 229234.

  • Zhou, Z. J., , and G. C. Zhang, 2003: Typical severe dust storms in northern China during 1954–2002. Chinese Sci. Bull., 48 , 23662370.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, J. F., , and Z. D. Zhu, 1999: Combating Desertification in China. Chinese Forest Press, 70 pp.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 137 137 20
PDF Downloads 113 113 21

A Simulated Climatology of Asian Dust Aerosol and Its Trans-Pacific Transport. Part II: Interannual Variability and Climate Connections

View More View Less
  • 1 Air Quality Research Branch, Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xian, China
  • | 2 Centre for Atmosphere Watch and Services, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing, and Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xian, China
  • | 3 Air Quality Research Branch, Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and Centre for Atmosphere Watch and Services, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing, China
  • | 4 Climate Research Branch, Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • | 5 Air Quality Research Branch, Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and Environment Division, Atmospheric Research and Environment Program, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
  • | 6 Atmospheric Science Programme/Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • | 7 Department of Atmospheric Science, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China
© Get Permissions Rent on DeepDyve
Restricted access

Abstract

A 44-yr climatology of spring Asian dust aerosol emission, column loading, deposition, trans-Pacific transport routes, and budgets during 1960–2003 was simulated with the Northern Aerosol Regional Climate Model (NARCM). Interannual variability in these Asian dust aerosol properties simulated by the model and its climate connections are analyzed with major climatic indices and records in ground observations. For dust production from most of the source regions, the strongest correlations were with the surface wind speed in the source region and the area and intensity indices of the Asian polar vortex (AIAPV and IIAPV, respectively). Dust emission was negatively correlated with precipitation and surface temperatures in spring. The strength of the East Asian monsoon was not found to be directly related to dust production but rather with the transport of dust from the Asian subcontinent. The interannual variability of dust loading and deposition showed similar relations with various climate indices. The correlation of Asian dust loading and deposition with the western Pacific (WP) pattern and Atmospheric Circulation Index (ACI) exhibited contrasting meridional and zonal distributions. AIAPV and IIAPV were strongly correlated with the midlatitude zonal distribution of dust loading and deposition over the Asian subcontinent and the North Pacific. The Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern and Southern Oscillation index (SOI) displayed an opposite correlation pattern of dust loading and deposition in the eastern Pacific, while SOI correlated significantly with dust loading over eastern China and northeast Asia. The Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) was linked to variations of dust aerosol and deposition not only in the area of the eastern North Pacific and North America but also in the Asian dust source regions. The anomalies of transport flux and its divergence as well as dust column loading were also identified for eight typical El Niño and eight La Niña years. A shift of the trans-Pacific transport path to the north was found for El Niño years, which resulted in less dust storms and dust loading in China. In El Niño years the deserts in Mongolia and western north China closer to the polar cold air regions contributed more dust aerosol in the troposphere, while in La Niña years the deserts in central and eastern north China far from polar cold regions provided more dust aerosol in the troposphere. On the basis of the variability of Asian dust aerosol budgets, the ratio of inflow to North America to the outflow from Asia was found to be correlated negatively with the PNA index and positively with the WP index.

Corresponding author address: Dr. S. L. Gong, Air Quality Research Branch, Meteorological Service of Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T4, Canada. Email: sunling.gong@ec.gc.ca

Abstract

A 44-yr climatology of spring Asian dust aerosol emission, column loading, deposition, trans-Pacific transport routes, and budgets during 1960–2003 was simulated with the Northern Aerosol Regional Climate Model (NARCM). Interannual variability in these Asian dust aerosol properties simulated by the model and its climate connections are analyzed with major climatic indices and records in ground observations. For dust production from most of the source regions, the strongest correlations were with the surface wind speed in the source region and the area and intensity indices of the Asian polar vortex (AIAPV and IIAPV, respectively). Dust emission was negatively correlated with precipitation and surface temperatures in spring. The strength of the East Asian monsoon was not found to be directly related to dust production but rather with the transport of dust from the Asian subcontinent. The interannual variability of dust loading and deposition showed similar relations with various climate indices. The correlation of Asian dust loading and deposition with the western Pacific (WP) pattern and Atmospheric Circulation Index (ACI) exhibited contrasting meridional and zonal distributions. AIAPV and IIAPV were strongly correlated with the midlatitude zonal distribution of dust loading and deposition over the Asian subcontinent and the North Pacific. The Pacific–North American (PNA) pattern and Southern Oscillation index (SOI) displayed an opposite correlation pattern of dust loading and deposition in the eastern Pacific, while SOI correlated significantly with dust loading over eastern China and northeast Asia. The Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) was linked to variations of dust aerosol and deposition not only in the area of the eastern North Pacific and North America but also in the Asian dust source regions. The anomalies of transport flux and its divergence as well as dust column loading were also identified for eight typical El Niño and eight La Niña years. A shift of the trans-Pacific transport path to the north was found for El Niño years, which resulted in less dust storms and dust loading in China. In El Niño years the deserts in Mongolia and western north China closer to the polar cold air regions contributed more dust aerosol in the troposphere, while in La Niña years the deserts in central and eastern north China far from polar cold regions provided more dust aerosol in the troposphere. On the basis of the variability of Asian dust aerosol budgets, the ratio of inflow to North America to the outflow from Asia was found to be correlated negatively with the PNA index and positively with the WP index.

Corresponding author address: Dr. S. L. Gong, Air Quality Research Branch, Meteorological Service of Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T4, Canada. Email: sunling.gong@ec.gc.ca

Save