• Bourassa, M. A., D. G. Vincent, and W. L. Wood, 1999: A flux parameterization including the effects of capillary waves and sea state. J. Atmos. Sci., 56 , 11231139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bourassa, M. A., D. M. Legler, J. J. O’Brien, and S. R. Smith, 2003: SeaWinds validation with research vessels. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .3019, doi:10.1029/2001JC001028.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carlson, T. N., 1969: Synoptic histories of three African disturbances that developed into Altantic hurricanes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 97 , 256276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, P., L. Ji, and H. Li, 1997: A decadal climate variation in the tropical Atlantic Ocean from thermodynamic air-sea interactions. Nature, 385 , 516518.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chiang, J. C. H., Y. Kushnir, and A. Giannini, 2002: Deconstructing Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone variability: Influence of the local cross-equatorial sea surface temperature gradient and remote forcing from the eastern equatorial Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 107 , 40044022.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clayson, C. A., and J. A. Curry, 1996: Determination of surface turbulent fluxes for TOGA COARE: Comparison of satellite retrievals and in situ measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 2850328513.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clayson, C. A., and A. Chen, 2002: Sensitivity of a coupled single-column model in the Tropics to treatment of the interfacial parameterizations. J. Climate, 15 , 18051831.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clayson, C. A., and D. Weitlich, 2005: Interannual variability of tropical Pacific diurnal sea surface temperature warming and nighttime cooling. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 .L21604, doi:10.1029/2005GL023786.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cronin, M. F., and W. S. Kessler, 2002: Seasonal and interannual modulation of mixed layer variability at 0°, 110°W. Deep-Sea Res. I, 49 , 117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deschamps, P. Y., and R. Frouin, 1984: Large diurnal heating of the sea surface observed by the HCMR experiment. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14 , 177184.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fairall, C. W., E. F. Bradley, J. S. Godfrey, G. A. Wick, J. B. Edson, and G. S. Young, 1996: Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 12951308.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Findlater, J., 1971: Mean monthly airflow at low levels over the western Indian Ocean. Geophys. Mem., 16 , 153.

  • Gentemann, C. L., C. J. Donlon, A. Stuart-Menteth, and F. J. Wentz, 2003: Diurnal signals in satellite sea surface temperature measurements. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 .1140, doi:10.1029/2002GL016291.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grodsky, S. A., and J. A. Carton, 2003: Intertropical convergence zone in the South Atlantic and the equatorial cold tongue. J. Climate, 16 , 723733.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grodsky, S. A., J. A. Carton, and S. Nigam, 2003: Near surface westerly wind jet in the Atlantic ITCZ. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 .2009, doi:10.1029/2003GL017867.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Halpern, D., and R. K. Reed, 1976: Heat budget of the upper ocean under light winds. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6 , 972975.

  • Huang, B., and J. Shukla, 1997: Characteristics of the interannual and decadal variability in a general circulation model of the tropical Atlantic Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27 , 16931712.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Imaoka, K., and R. W. Spencer, 2000: Diurnal variation of precipitation over the tropical oceans observed by TRMM/TMI combined with SSM/I. J. Climate, 13 , 41494158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kawai, Y., and H. Kawamura, 2002: Evaluation of the diurnal warming of sea surface temperature using satellite-derived marine meteorological data. J. Oceanogr., 58 , 805814.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mapes, B. E., and R. A. Houze Jr., 1995: Diabatic divergence profiles in western Pacific mesoscale convective systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 18071828.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McPhaden, M. J., and Coauthors, 1998: The Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere observing system: A decade of progress. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 1416914240.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mears, C. A., D. K. Smith, and F. J. Wentz, 2001: Comparison of Special Sensor Microwave Imager and buoy-measured wind speeds from 1987 to 1997. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 1171911729.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • North, G. R., T. L. Bell, R. F. Cahalan, and F. J. Moeng, 1982: Sampling errors in the estimation of empirical orthogonal functions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110 , 699706.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Overland, J. E., and R. W. Preisendorfer, 1982: A significance test for principal components applied to a cyclone climatology. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110 , 14.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Payne, R. E., and Coauthors, 2002: A comparison of buoy meteorological systems. WHOI Tech. Rep. WHOI-2002-10, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 67 pp.

  • Perigaud, C., D. Neelin, and J. McCreary, 2003: Role of the Indian Ocean SST anomalies in the coupling of the atmosphere and ocean. Preprints, 12th Conf. on Interactions of the Sea and Atmosphere, Long Beach, CA, Amer. Meteor., Soc., CD-ROM, 6.4.

  • Price, J. F., R. A. Weller, and R. Pinkel, 1986: Diurnal cycling: Observations and models of the upper ocean response to diurnal heating, cooling, and wind mixing. J. Geophys. Res., 91 , 84118427.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rossow, W. B., and Y-C. Zhang, 1995: Calculation of surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes from physical quantities based on ISCCP data sets. 2. Validation and first results. J. Phys. Res., 100 , 11671197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saji, N. H., B. N. Goswami, P. N. Vinayachandran, and T. Yamagata, 1999: A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean. Nature, 401 , 360363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Servain, J., and Coauthors, 1998: A Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85 , 167172.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seze, G., and W. B. Rossow, 1991: Effects of satellite data resolution on measuring the space-time variations of surfaces and clouds. Int. J. Remote Sens., 12 , 921952.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shinoda, T., 2005: Impact of the diurnal cycle of solar radiation on intraseasonal SST variability in the western equatorial Pacific. J. Climate, 18 , 26282636.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Solomon, A., and F-F. Jin, 2005: A study of the impact of off-equatorial warm pool SST anomalies on ENSO cycles. J. Climate, 18 , 274287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Soloviev, A., and R. Lukas, 1997: Observation of large diurnal warming events in the near-surface layer of the western equatorial warm pool. Deep-Sea Res., 44 , 10551076.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stommel, H., 1969: Observations of the diurnal thermocline. Deep-Sea Res., 16 , 269284.

  • Stramma, L., P. Cornillon, R. A. Weller, J. F. Price, and M. G. Briscoe, 1986: Large diurnal sea surface temperature variability: Satellite and in situ measurements. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 16 , 345358.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stuart-Menteth, A. C., I. S. Robinson, and P. G. Challenor, 2003: A global study of diurnal warming using satellite-derived sea surface temperature. J. Geophys. Res., 108 .3155, doi:10.1029/2002JC001534.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sui, C. H., X. Li, K. M. Lau, and D. Adamec, 1997: Multiscale air–sea interactions during TOGA COARE. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 448462.

  • Wang, B., R. Wu, and T. Li, 2003: Atmosphere–warm ocean interaction and its impacts on Asian–Australian monsoon variation. J. Climate, 16 , 11951211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, P. J., and R. Lukas, 1992: TOGA COARE: The Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 73 , 13771416.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, P. J., C. A. Clayson, and J. A. Curry, 1996: Clouds, radiation, and the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature in the tropical western Pacific. J. Climate, 9 , 17121730.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, P. J., V. O. Magaña, T. N. Palmer, J. Shukla, R. A. Tomas, M. Yanai, and T. Yasunari, 1998: Monsoons: Processes, predictability, and the prospects for prediction. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 1445114510.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, P. J., A. M. Moore, and R. R. Leben, 1999: Coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics in the Indian Ocean during 1997–1998. Nature, 401 , 356360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wentz, F. J., 1997: A well-calibrated ocean algorithm for special sensor microwave/imager. J. Geophys. Res., 102 , 87038718.

  • Zhang, Y-C., W. B. Rossow, and A. A. Lacis, 1995: Calculation of surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes from physical quantities based on ISCCP data sets. 1. Method and sensitivity to input data uncertainties. J. Geophys. Res., 100 , 11491165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, Y-C., W. B. Rossow, A. A. Lacis, V. Oinas, and M. I. Mishchenko, 2004: Calculation of radiative fluxes from the surface to top of atmosphere based on ISCCP and other global data sets: Refinements of the radiative transfer model and the input data. J. Geophys. Res., 109 .D19105, doi:10.1029/2003JD004457.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 512 208 16
PDF Downloads 564 274 6

Variability of Tropical Diurnal Sea Surface Temperature

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Meteorology, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida
Restricted access

Abstract

A dataset consisting of daily diurnal warming values from 1996 through 2000 covering the global Tropics (30°N through 30°S) at 0.25° × 0.25° resolution has been created using a parameterization for the diurnal warming developed previously. The inputs to the parameterization are the peak shortwave solar radiation [determined from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data] and daily averaged wind speed [determined from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data]. Comparisons with Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) and Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) buoys show that the biases are small (mean bias is 0.0012°C; the standard deviation and correlation are 0.26°C and 0.74) and show no discernable geographic bias.

The 5-yr average shows that throughout most regions the values are small, with higher values (approaching 1°C) in the northern Indian Ocean, the western equatorial Pacific, the equatorial eastern Pacific, and several coastal regions. An EOF analysis of the variability indicates that seasonal variability is the most dominant form for each of the basins; in the Atlantic and Pacific basins it is north–south following the solar cycle. In the Indian Ocean the seasonal cycle is dominated by monsoonal variability; both the northern and southern portions of the basin have above-mean or below-mean values at the same times. Seasonal shortwave variability is responsible for the second mode in the Indian Ocean. East–west dipole weight structures appear in the spatial patterns for mode 2 in the Pacific and mode 3 for the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. These modes also display seasonally varying characteristics, with late 1997 and early 1998 being somewhat anomalous in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

* Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Institute Contribution Number 448

Corresponding author address: Carol Anne Clayson, Department of Meteorology, and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Institute, 404 Love Building, The Florida State University. Tallahassee, FL 32306. Email: clayson@met.fsu.edu

Abstract

A dataset consisting of daily diurnal warming values from 1996 through 2000 covering the global Tropics (30°N through 30°S) at 0.25° × 0.25° resolution has been created using a parameterization for the diurnal warming developed previously. The inputs to the parameterization are the peak shortwave solar radiation [determined from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data] and daily averaged wind speed [determined from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data]. Comparisons with Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) and Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) buoys show that the biases are small (mean bias is 0.0012°C; the standard deviation and correlation are 0.26°C and 0.74) and show no discernable geographic bias.

The 5-yr average shows that throughout most regions the values are small, with higher values (approaching 1°C) in the northern Indian Ocean, the western equatorial Pacific, the equatorial eastern Pacific, and several coastal regions. An EOF analysis of the variability indicates that seasonal variability is the most dominant form for each of the basins; in the Atlantic and Pacific basins it is north–south following the solar cycle. In the Indian Ocean the seasonal cycle is dominated by monsoonal variability; both the northern and southern portions of the basin have above-mean or below-mean values at the same times. Seasonal shortwave variability is responsible for the second mode in the Indian Ocean. East–west dipole weight structures appear in the spatial patterns for mode 2 in the Pacific and mode 3 for the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. These modes also display seasonally varying characteristics, with late 1997 and early 1998 being somewhat anomalous in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

* Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Institute Contribution Number 448

Corresponding author address: Carol Anne Clayson, Department of Meteorology, and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Institute, 404 Love Building, The Florida State University. Tallahassee, FL 32306. Email: clayson@met.fsu.edu

Save