A Reanalysis of the 1911–20 Atlantic Hurricane Database

Christopher W. Landsea *NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida

Search for other papers by Christopher W. Landsea in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
David A. Glenn Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi

Search for other papers by David A. Glenn in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
William Bredemeyer CIMAS/University of Miami, and NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida

Search for other papers by William Bredemeyer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Michael Chenoweth Independent Scholar, Elkridge, Maryland

Search for other papers by Michael Chenoweth in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Ryan Ellis University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida

Search for other papers by Ryan Ellis in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
John Gamache *NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida

Search for other papers by John Gamache in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Lyle Hufstetler CIMAS/University of Miami, and NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida

Search for other papers by Lyle Hufstetler in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Cary Mock **University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina

Search for other papers by Cary Mock in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Ramon Perez Institute of Meteorology, Havana, Cuba

Search for other papers by Ramon Perez in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Ricardo Prieto Mexican Institute of Water Technologies (IMTA), Jiutepec, Mexico

Search for other papers by Ricardo Prieto in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Jorge Sánchez-Sesma Mexican Institute of Water Technologies (IMTA), Jiutepec, Mexico

Search for other papers by Jorge Sánchez-Sesma in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Donna Thomas CBS-4, Miami, Florida

Search for other papers by Donna Thomas in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Lenworth Woolcock CIMAS/University of Miami, and NOAA/AOML/Hurricane Research Division, Miami, Florida

Search for other papers by Lenworth Woolcock in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

A reanalysis of the Atlantic basin tropical storm and hurricane database (“best track”) for the period of 1911–20 has been completed. This reassessment of the main archive for tropical cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico was necessary to correct systematic biases and random errors in the data as well as to search for previously unrecognized systems. A methodology for the reanalysis process for revising the track and intensity of tropical cyclone data is provided in detail. The dataset now includes several new tropical cyclones, excludes one system previously considered a tropical storm, makes generally large alterations in the intensity estimates of most tropical cyclones (both toward stronger and weaker intensities), and typically adjusts existing tracks with minor corrections. Average errors in intensity and track values are estimated for both open ocean conditions as well as for landfalling systems. Finally, highlights are given for changes to the more significant hurricanes to impact the United States, Central America, and the Caribbean for this decade.

&& Current affiliation: NOAA/NWS/TPC/National Hurricane Center, Miami, Florida

Corresponding author address: Christopher W. Landsea, NOAA/NWS/TPC, National Hurricane Center, Miami, FL 33149. Email: chris.landsea@noaa.gov

Abstract

A reanalysis of the Atlantic basin tropical storm and hurricane database (“best track”) for the period of 1911–20 has been completed. This reassessment of the main archive for tropical cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico was necessary to correct systematic biases and random errors in the data as well as to search for previously unrecognized systems. A methodology for the reanalysis process for revising the track and intensity of tropical cyclone data is provided in detail. The dataset now includes several new tropical cyclones, excludes one system previously considered a tropical storm, makes generally large alterations in the intensity estimates of most tropical cyclones (both toward stronger and weaker intensities), and typically adjusts existing tracks with minor corrections. Average errors in intensity and track values are estimated for both open ocean conditions as well as for landfalling systems. Finally, highlights are given for changes to the more significant hurricanes to impact the United States, Central America, and the Caribbean for this decade.

&& Current affiliation: NOAA/NWS/TPC/National Hurricane Center, Miami, Florida

Corresponding author address: Christopher W. Landsea, NOAA/NWS/TPC, National Hurricane Center, Miami, FL 33149. Email: chris.landsea@noaa.gov

Save
  • ASCE, 1998: ASCE 7-98 Standard—Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. American Society of Civil Engineers, 352 pp.

  • Barnes, J., 1998a: Florida’s Hurricane History. University of North Carolina Press, 330 pp.

  • Barnes, J., 1998b: North Carolina’s Hurricane History. University of North Carolina Press, 256 pp.

  • Bell, G. D., and Coauthors, 2000: Climate assessment for 1999. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81 , S1S50.

  • Bender, M. A., R. E. Tuleya, and Y. Kurihara, 1985: A numerical study of the effect of a mountain range on a landfalling tropical cyclone. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113 , 567583.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blake, E. S., E. N. Rappaport, and C. W. Landsea, 2007: The deadliest, costliest, and most intense United States tropical cyclones from 1851 to 2006 (and other frequently requested hurricane facts). NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS TPC-5, 43 pp. [Available online at http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/Deadliest_Costliest.shtml.].

  • Boose, E. R., K. E. Chamberlin, and D. R. Foster, 2001: Landscape and regional impacts of hurricanes in New England. Ecol. Monogr., 71 , 2748.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boose, E. R., M. I. Serrano, and D. R. Foster, 2004: Landscape and regional impacts of hurricanes in Puerto Rico. Ecol. Monogr., 74 , 335352.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, D. P., J. L. Franklin, and C. W. Landsea, 2006: A fresh look at tropical cyclone pressure-wind relationships using recent reconnaissance-based “best track” data (1998–2005). Preprints, 27th Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Monterey, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 3B.5. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/107190.pdf].

  • Callaghan, J., and R. K. Smith, 1998: The relationship between maximum surface wind speeds and central pressure in tropical cyclones. Aust. Meteor. Mag., 47 , 191202.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cardone, V. J., J. G. Greenwood, and M. A. Cane, 1990: On trends in historical marine wind data. J. Climate, 3 , 113127.

  • Cline, I. M., 1926: Tropical Cyclones. Macmillan Company, 301 pp.

  • Cochran, L., 2000: Wind engineering as related to tropical cyclones. Storms, R. Pielke Jr. and R. Pielke Sr., Eds., Routledge Hazards and Disasters Series, Vol. 1, Routledge, 242–258.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Connor, W. C., 1956: Preliminary summary of Gulf of Mexico hurricane data. New Orleans Forecast Office Rep., 178 pp.

  • Day, W. P., 1921: Summary of the Hurricanes of 1919, 1920, and 1921. Mon. Wea. Rev., 49 , 658659.

  • DeMaria, M., and J. Kaplan, 1999: An updated Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS) for the Atlantic and eastern North Pacific basins. Wea. Forecasting, 14 , 326337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunion, J. P., C. W. Landsea, S. H. Houston, and M. D. Powell, 2003: A reanalysis of the surface winds for Hurricane Donna of 1960. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 19922011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunn, G. E., and B. I. Miller, 1960: Atlantic Hurricanes. Louisiana State University Press, 326 pp.

  • Dvorak, V. F., 1984: Tropical cyclone intensity analysis using satellite data. NOAA Tech. Rep. NESDIS 11, 47 pp.

  • Ellis, M. J., 1988: The Hurricane Almanac—1988 Texas Edition. Hurricane Publications, 213 pp.

  • Fergusson, S. P., and R. N. Covert, 1924: New standards of anemometry. Mon. Wea. Rev., 52 , 216218.

  • Fernandez-Partagas, J., and H. F. Diaz, 1996: Atlantic hurricanes in the second half of the nineteenth century. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 28992906.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Franklin, J. L., M. L. Black, and K. Valde, 2003: GPS dropwindsonde wind profiles in hurricanes and their operational implications. Wea. Forecasting, 18 , 3244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gray, W. M., 1984: Atlantic seasonal hurricane frequency: Part I: El Niño and 30 mb quasi-biennial oscillation influences. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112 , 16491668.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, M., 1913: A report on the storms and hurricanes in Jamaica. No. 411, Government Printing Office, Kingston, Jamaica, 16 pp.

  • Hebert, P. J., and G. Taylor, 1975: Hurricane experience levels of coastal county populations from Texas to Maine. National Weather Service Community Preparedness Staff and Southern Region Special Rep., 153 pp.

  • Ho, F. P., 1989: Extreme hurricanes in the nineteenth century. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS Hydro 43, Silver Spring, MD, 134 pp.

  • Ho, F. P., J. C. Su, K. L. Hanevich, R. J. Smith, and F. P. Richards, 1987: Hurricane climatology for the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. NOAA Tech. Rep. NWS 38, 193 pp.

  • Holland, G. J., 1981: On the quality of the Australian tropical cyclone data base. Aust. Meteor. Mag., 29 , 169181.

  • Houston, S. H., W. A. Shaffer, M. D. Powell, and J. Chen, 1999: Comparisons of HRD and SLOSH surface wind fields in hurricanes: Implications for storm surge modeling. Wea. Forecasting, 14 , 671686.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hudgins, J. E., 2000: Tropical cyclones affecting North Carolina since 1586—An historical perspective. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS ER-92, 83 pp.

  • Jarrell, J. D., P. J. Hebert, and M. Mayfield, 1992: Hurricane experience levels of coastal county populations from Texas to Maine. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS NHC-46, 152 pp.

  • Jarvinen, B. R., C. J. Neumann, and M. A. S. Davis, 1984: A tropical cyclone data tape for the North Atlantic Basin, 1886–1983: Contents, limitations, and uses. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS NHC 22, 21 pp.

  • Jarvinen, B. R., A. B. Damiano, and G. J. D. Lockett, 1985: A storm surge atlas for Corpus Christi, Texas. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS NHC 27, 41 pp.

  • Jelesnianski, C. P., J. Chen, and W. A. Shaffer, 1992: SLOSH: Sea, lake, and overland surges from hurricanes. NOAA Tech. Rep. NWS 48, 71 pp. [Available from NOAA/AOML Library, 4301 Rickenbacker Cswy., Miami, FL 33149.].

  • Kadel, B. C., 1926: An interpretation of the wind velocity record at Miami Beach, Fla., September 17–18, 1926. Mon. Wea. Rev., 54 , 414416.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaplan, J., and M. DeMaria, 1995: A simple empirical model for predicting the decay of tropical cyclone winds after landfall. J. Appl. Meteor., 34 , 24992512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaplan, J., and M. DeMaria, 2001: On the decay of tropical cyclone winds after landfall in the New England area. J. Appl. Meteor., 40 , 280286.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kinsman, B., 1969: Who put the wind speeds in Admiral Beaufort’s Force Scale? Oceans, 2 , 1825.

  • Knaff, J. A., and R. M. Zehr, 2007: Reexamination of tropical cyclone wind–pressure relationships. Wea. Forecasting, 22 , 7188.

  • Kraft, R. H., 1961: The hurricane’s central pressure and highest wind. Mar. Wea. Log, 5 , 155.

  • Landsea, C. W., 1993: A climatology of intense (or major) Atlantic hurricanes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 17031713.

  • Landsea, C. W., 2007: Counting Atlantic tropical cyclones back to 1900. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 88 , 197.

  • Landsea, C. W., R. A. Pielke Jr., A. M. Mestas-Nuñez, and J. A. Knaff, 1999: Atlantic basin hurricanes: Indices of climatic changes. Climatic Change, 42 , 89129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Landsea, C. W., and Coauthors, 2004a: The Atlantic hurricane database re-analysis project: Documentation for the 1851–1910 alterations and additions to the HURDAT database. Hurricanes and Typhoons: Past, Present, and Future, R. J. Murnane and K.-B. Liu, Eds., Columbia University Press, 177–221.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Landsea, C. W., and Coauthors, 2004b: A reanalysis of Hurricane Andrew’s intensity. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85 , 16991712.

  • Malmquist, D. L., and A. F. Michaels, 2000: Severe storms and the insurance industry. Storms, R. Pielke Jr. and R. Pielke Sr., Eds., Routledge Hazards and Disasters Series, Vol. 1, Routledge, 54–69.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McAdie, C. J., and M. B. Lawrence, 2000: Improvements in tropical cyclone track forecasting in the Atlantic basin, 1970–98. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81 , 989997.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mitchell, C. L., 1932: West Indian hurricanes and other tropical cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean. Mon. Wea. Rev., 60 , 253.

  • Neumann, C. J., 1993: Global overview. Global guide to tropical cyclone forecasting. WMO/TD 560, Rep. TCP-31, 43 pp.

  • Neumann, C. J., 1994: An update to the National Hurricane Center “Track Book.” Minutes of the 48th Interdepartmental Conf., Miami, FL, NOAA/Office of Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research, A-47–A-53.

  • Neumann, C. J., B. R. Jarvinen, C. J. McAdie, and G. R. Hammer, 1999: Tropical cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 1871–1998. National Climatic Data Center/Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center Historical Climatology Series 6-2, 206 pp.

  • OFCM, 2005: National hurricane operations plan. Publication FCM-P12-2005, 166 pp. [Available from the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research, Suite 1500, 8455 Colesville Rd., Silver Spring, MD 20910.].

  • Paxton, C. H., D. S. Sobien, R. F. Morales Jr., and K. B. Kasper, 1998: Coastal flooding along the west-central coast of Florida. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS SR-199, 50 pp.

  • Perez Suarez, R., R. Vega, and M. Limia, 2000: Cronologia de los Ciclones Tropicales de Cuba. Instituto de Meteorologia, 100 pp.

  • Pielke Jr., R. A., J. Rubiera, C. W. Landsea, M. L. Fernandez, and R. Klein, 2003: Hurricane vulnerability in Latin America and the Caribbean: Normalized damage and loss potentials. Nat. Hazards Rev., 4 , 101114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Powell, M. D., and S. H. Houston, 1996: Hurricane Andrew’s landfall in south Florida. Part II: Surface wind fields and potential real-time applications. Wea. Forecasting, 11 , 329349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Powell, M. D., S. H. Houston, and T. A. Reinhold, 1996: Hurricane Andrew’s landfall in south Florida. Part I: Standardizing measurements for documentation of surface wind fields. Wea. Forecasting, 11 , 304328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rappaport, E. N., and J. Fernandez-Partagas, 1995: The deadliest Atlantic tropical cyclones, 1492–1994. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS NHC-47, 41 pp.

  • Roth, D. M., cited. 1997a: Louisiana hurricanes. [Available online at http://www.srh.noaa.gov/lch/research/lahur.php.].

  • Roth, D. M., cited. 1997b: Texas hurricane history. [Available online at http://www.srh.noaa.gov/lch/research/txhur.php.].

  • Roth, D. M., and H. D. Cobb III, cited. 2001: Virginia hurricane history. [Available online at http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/research/roth/vahur.htm.].

  • Saffir, H. S., 1973: Hurricane wind and storm surge. Mil. Eng., 423 , 45.

  • Sandrik, A., and B. R. Jarvinen, 1999: A re-evaluation of the Georgia and northeast Florida tropical cyclone of 2 October 1898. Preprints, 23rd Conf. on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Dallas, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 475–478.

  • Schloemer, R. W., 1954: Analysis and synthesis of hurricane wind patterns over Lake Okeechobee, Florida. Hydrometeorology Rep. 31, 49 pp.

  • Schwerdt, R. W., F. P. Ho, and R. R. Watkins, 1979: Meteorological criteria for standard project hurricane and probable maximum hurricane windfields, Gulf and East Coasts of the United States. NOAA Tech. Rep. NWS 23, 317 pp.

  • Simpson, R. H., 1974: The hurricane disaster potential scale. Weatherwise, 27 , 169. 186.

  • Tannehill, I. R., 1938: Hurricanes, Their Nature and History, Particularly Those of the West Indies and the Southern Coasts of the United States. Princeton University Press, 257 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tucker, T., 1982: Beware the Hurricane! The Story of the Cyclonic Tropical Storms that Have Struck Bermuda and the Islanders’ Fork-lore Regarding Them. 3rd ed. Island Press, 173 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vickery, P. J., P. F. Skerlj, and L. A. Twisdale, 2000: Simulation of hurricane risk in the U.S. using empirical track model. J. Struct. Eng., 126 , 12221237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wiggert, V., and B. R. Jarvinen, 1986: A storm surge atlas for the Sabine Lake (Texas/Louisiana) area. NOAA Tech. Memo. NWS NHC 30, National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Silver Spring, MD, 50 pp.

  • WMO, 2007: Statement on tropical cyclones and climate change. Sixth WMO International Workshop on Tropical Cyclones (IWTC-VI), WWRP 2007-1, WMO Tech. Doc. 1383, 5–15.

  • Woodruff, S. D., R. J. Slutz, R. L. Jenne, and P. M. Steurer, 1987: A comprehensive ocean-atmosphere data set. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 68 , 12391250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1081 310 38
PDF Downloads 539 210 24