Possible Role of the Indian Ocean in the In-Phase Transition of the Indian-to-Australian Summer Monsoon

Renguang Wu Center for Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, Maryland

Search for other papers by Renguang Wu in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Abstract

Analysis of observations shows that in-phase transitions from the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) to the Australian summer monsoon (ASM) have occurred both in El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and non-ENSO years. The present study investigates possible roles of the Indian Ocean in the in-phase ISM-to-ASM transitions. It is shown that an anomalous ISM leads to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean through wind–evaporation effects. The resultant Indian Ocean SST anomalies induce an anomalous ASM of the same sign as the ISM through an anomalous east–west circulation over the eastern Indian Ocean and the Maritime Continent–northern Australia. The results indicate that the in-phase ISM-to-ASM transitions in non-ENSO years can be accomplished through monsoon–Indian Ocean interactions. The results of observational analysis are confirmed with numerical model experiments.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Renguang Wu, Center for Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Studies, 4041 Powder Mill Road, Suite 302, Calverton, MD 20705. Email: renguang@cola.iges.org

Abstract

Analysis of observations shows that in-phase transitions from the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) to the Australian summer monsoon (ASM) have occurred both in El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and non-ENSO years. The present study investigates possible roles of the Indian Ocean in the in-phase ISM-to-ASM transitions. It is shown that an anomalous ISM leads to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean through wind–evaporation effects. The resultant Indian Ocean SST anomalies induce an anomalous ASM of the same sign as the ISM through an anomalous east–west circulation over the eastern Indian Ocean and the Maritime Continent–northern Australia. The results indicate that the in-phase ISM-to-ASM transitions in non-ENSO years can be accomplished through monsoon–Indian Ocean interactions. The results of observational analysis are confirmed with numerical model experiments.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Renguang Wu, Center for Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Studies, 4041 Powder Mill Road, Suite 302, Calverton, MD 20705. Email: renguang@cola.iges.org

Save
  • Adler, R. F., and Coauthors, 2003: The version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–present). J. Hydrometeor., 4 , 11471167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Allan, R. J., 1991: Australasia. Teleconnections Linking Worldwide Climate Anomalies, M. Glantz et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 73–120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brier, G. W., 1978: The quasi-biennial oscillation and feedback processes in the atmosphere-ocean-earth system. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106 , 938946.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, C-P., and T. Li, 2000: A theory for the tropical tropospheric biennial oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci., 57 , 22092224.

  • Charney, J. G., and J. Shukla, 1981: Predictability of monsoons. Monsoon Dynamics, J. Lighthill and R. P. Pearce, Eds., Cambridge University Press, 99–110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, C. O., J. E. Cole, and P. J. Webster, 2000: Indian Ocean SST and Indian summer rainfall: Predictive relationships and their decadal variability. J. Climate, 13 , 25032519.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clarke, A. J., X. Liu, and S. V. Gorder, 1998: Dynamics of the biennial oscillation in the equatorial Indian and far western Pacific Oceans. J. Climate, 11 , 9871001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Drosdowsky, W., 1996: Variability of the Australian summer monsoon at Darwin: 1957–1992. J. Climate, 9 , 8596.

  • Drosdowsky, W., and L. E. Chambers, 2001: Near-global sea surface temperature anomalies as predictors of Australian seasonal rainfall. J. Climate, 14 , 16771687.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dube, S. K., M. E. Luther, and J. J. O’Brien, 1990: Relationship between interannual variability in the Arabian Sea and Indian summer monsoon. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 44 , 153165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gautier, C., P. Peterson, and C. Jones, 1998: Variability of air–sea interactions over the Indian Ocean derived from satellite observations. J. Climate, 11 , 18591873.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goswami, B. N., 1998: Interannual variations of Indian summer monsoon in a GCM: External conditions versus internal feedbacks. J. Climate, 11 , 501522.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haylock, M., and J. L. McBride, 2001: Spatial coherence and predictability of Indonesian wet season rainfall. J. Climate, 14 , 38823887.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hendon, H. H., 2003: Indonesian rainfall variability: Impacts of ENSO and local air–sea interaction. J. Climate, 16 , 17751790.

  • Holland, G. J., 1986: Interannual variability of the Australian summer monsoon at Darwin: 1952–82. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114 , 594604.

  • Hung, C-W., X. Liu, and M. Yanai, 2004: Symmetry and asymmetry of the Asian and Australian summer monsoons. J. Climate, 17 , 24132426.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Joseph, P. V., B. Liebmann, and H. H. Hendon, 1991: Interannual variability of the Australian summer monsoon onset: Possible influences of Indian summer monsoon and El Niño. J. Climate, 4 , 529538.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kanamitsu, M., W. Ebisuzaki, J. Woollen, S-K. Yang, J. J. Hnilo, M. Fiorino, and G. L. Potterl, 2002: NCEP-DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83 , 16311643.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kinter III, J. L., and Coauthors, 1997: The COLA atmosphere-biosphere general circulation model. Volume 1: Formulation. COLA Tech. Rep. 51, 46 pp.

  • Klein, S. A., B. J. Sode, and N-C. Lau, 1999: Remote sea surface temperature variations during ENSO: Evidence for a tropical atmospheric bridge. J. Climate, 12 , 917932.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krishna Kumar, K., B. Rajagopolan, and M. A. Cane, 1999: On the weakening relationship between the Indian monsoon and ENSO. Science, 284 , 21562159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krishna Kumar, K., B. Rajagoplan, M. Hoerling, G. Bates, and M. Cane, 2006: Unraveling the mystery of Indian monsoon failure during El Niño. Science, 314 , 115119.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krishnamurthy, V., and B. P. Kirtman, 2003: Variability of the Indian Ocean: Relation to monsoon and ENSO. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129 , 16231646.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, N-C., and M. J. Nath, 2000: Impact of ENSO on the variability of the Asian–Australian monsoons as simulated in GCM experiments. J. Climate, 13 , 42874309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, N-C., and M. J. Nath, 2003: Atmosphere–ocean variations in the Indo-Pacific sector during ENSO episodes. J. Climate, 16 , 320.

  • Lavery, B., A. Kariko, and N. Nicholls, 1992: A historical rainfall data set for Australia. Meteor. Mag., 40 , 3339.

  • Lavery, B., G. Joung, and N. Nicholls, 1997: An extended high-quality historical rainfall dataset for Australia. Meteor. Mag., 46 , 2738.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McBride, J. L., and N. Nicholls, 1983: Seasonal relationships between Australian rainfall and the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111 , 19982004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McBride, J. L., M. Haylock, and N. Nicholls, 2003: Relationships between the Maritime Continent heat source and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation phenomenon. J. Climate, 16 , 29052914.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meehl, G. A., 1987: The annual cycle and interannual variability in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 2750.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meehl, G. A., 1993: A coupled air–sea biennial mechanism in the tropical Indian and Pacific regions: Role of the ocean. J. Climate, 6 , 3141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meehl, G. A., 1994: Coupled land-ocean-atmosphere processes and South Asian monsoon variability. Science, 266 , 263267.

  • Meehl, G. A., 1997: The South Asian monsoon and the tropospheric biennial oscillation. J. Climate, 10 , 19211943.

  • Meehl, G. A., and J. M. Arblaster, 2002: The tropospheric biennial oscillation and Asian–Australian monsoon rainfall. J. Climate, 15 , 722744.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nicholls, N., 1978: Air-sea interaction and the quasi-biennial oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106 , 15051508.

  • Nicholls, N., 1979: A simple air-sea interaction model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 105 , 93105.

  • Ogasawara, N., A. Kitoh, T. Yasunari, and A. Noda, 1999: Tropospheric biennial oscillation of ENSO-monsoon system in the MRI coupled GCM. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 77 , 12471270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parthasarathy, B., A. A. Munot, and D. R. Kothawale, 1994: All-Indian monthly and seasonal rainfall series: 1871–1993. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 49 , 217224.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rao, K. G., and B. N. Goswami, 1988: Interannual variations of sea surface temperature over the Arabian Sea and the Indian monsoon: A new perspective. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116 , 558568.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rasmusson, E. M., and T. H. Carpenter, 1983: The relationship between the eastern Pacific sea surface temperature and rainfall over India and Sri Lanka. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111 , 517528.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert, 1987: Global and regional scale precipitation patterns associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 16061626.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert, 1989: Precipitation patterns associated with the high index phase of the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 2 , 268284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shukla, J., 1987: Interannual variability of monsoons. Monsoons, J. S. Fein and P. L. Stephens, Eds., John Wiley and Sons, 399–464.

  • Shukla, J., and B. M. Misra, 1977: Relationships between sea surface temperature and wind speed over the central Arabian Sea, and monsoon rainfall over India. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105 , 9981002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shukla, J., and D. A. Paolino, 1983: The Southern Oscillation and long-range forecasting of the summer monsoon anomalies over India. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111 , 18301837.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, T. M., and R. W. Reynolds, 2004: Improved extended reconstruction of SST (1854–1997). J. Climate, 17 , 24662477.

  • Uppala, S. M., and Coauthors, 2005: The ERA-40 Re-Analysis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131 , 29613012.

  • Webster, P. J., and S. Yang, 1992: Monsoon and ENSO: Selectively interactive systems. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 118 , 877926.

  • Webster, P. J., V. O. Magana, T. N. Palmer, J. Shukla, R. A. Tomas, M. Yanai, and T. Yasunari, 1998: Monsoons: Processes, predictability, and the prospects for prediction. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 1445114510.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, R., and B. P. Kirtman, 2004: The tropospheric biennial oscillation of the monsoon–ENSO system in an interactive ensemble coupled GCM. J. Climate, 17 , 16231640.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, R., and B. P. Kirtman, 2007a: Role of the Indian Ocean in the biennial transition of the Indian summer monsoon. J. Climate, 20 , 21472164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, R., and B. P. Kirtman, 2007b: Roles of the Indian Ocean in the Australian summer monsoon–ENSO relationship. J. Climate, 20 , 47684797.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, P., and P. A. Arkin, 1997: Global precipitation: A 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 25392558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yoo, S-H., S. Yang, and C-H. Ho, 2006: Variability of the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature and its impacts on Asian–Australian monsoon climate. J. Geophys. Res., 111 .D03108, doi:10.1029/2005JD006001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, J-Y., S-P. Weng, and J. D. Farrara, 2003: Ocean roles in the TBO transitions of the Indian–Australian monsoon system. J. Climate, 16 , 30723080.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 219 65 7
PDF Downloads 125 52 6