• Bretherton, C. S., , J. R. McCaa, , and H. Grenier, 2004: A new parameterization for shallow cumulus convection and its application to marine subtropical cloud-topped boundary layers. Part I: Description and 1D results. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 864882.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, A. R., , A. C. M. Beljaars, , H. Hersbach, , A. Hollingsworth, , M. Miller, , and D. Vasiljevic, 2005: Wind turning across the marine atmospheric boundary layer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131 , 12331250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, A. R., , A. C. M. Beljaars, , and H. Hersbach, 2006: Errors in parameterizations of convective boundary-layer turbulent momentum mixing. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 132 , 18591876.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, A. R., , R. J. Beare, , J. M. Edwards, , A. P. Lock, , S. J. Keogh, , S. F. Milton, , and D. N. Walters, 2008: Upgrades to the boundary layer scheme in the Met Office NWP model. Bound.-Layer Meteor., 128 , 117132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Businger, J. A., , and W. J. Shaw, 1984: The response of the marine boundary layer to mesoscale variation in sea-surface temperature. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 8 , 267281.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cavaleri, L., , L. Bertotti, , M. Hortal, , and M. Miller, 1997: Effect of reduced diffusion on surface wind and wave fields. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 30243029.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chelton, D. B., 2005: The impact of SST specification on ECMWF surface wind stress fields in the eastern tropical Pacific. J. Climate, 18 , 530550.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chelton, D. B., , and F. J. Wentz, 2005: Global microwave satellite observations of sea surface temperature for numerical weather prediction and climate research. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86 , 10971115.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chelton, D. B., and Coauthors, 2001: Observations of coupling between surface wind stress and sea surface temperature in the eastern tropical Pacific. J. Climate, 14 , 14791498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chelton, D. B., , M. G. Schlax, , M. H. Freilich, , and R. F. Milliff, 2004: Satellite measurements reveal persistent small-scale features in ocean winds. Science, 303 , 978983.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Durran, D. R., 2000: Comments on “The differentiation between grid spacing and resolution and their application to numerical modeling”. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81 , 2478.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Friehe, C. A., and Coauthors, 1991: Air-sea fluxes and surface layer turbulence around a sea surface temperature front. J. Geophys. Res., 96 , 85938609.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galperin, B., , L. H. Kantha, , S. Hassid, , and A. Rosati, 1988: A quasi-equilibrium turbulent energy model for geophysical flows. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 5562.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Giordani, H., , S. Planton, , B. Benech, , and B-H. Kwon, 1998: Atmospheric boundary layer response to sea surface temperatures during the SEMAPHORE experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 103 , 2504725060.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grasso, L. D., 2000: The differentiation between grid spacing and resolution and their application to numerical modeling. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81 , 579580.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grenier, H., , and C. S. Bretherton, 2001: A moist PBL parameterization for large-scale model and its application to subtropical cloud-topped marine boundary layers. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129 , 357377.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haack, T., , S. D. Burk, , and R. M. Hodur, 2005: U.S. west coast surface heat fluxes, wind stress, and wind stress curl from a mesoscale model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133 , 32023216.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haack, T., , D. B. Chelton, , J. Pullen, , J. Doyle, , and M. Schlax, 2008: Summertime influence of SST on surface wind stress off the U.S. West Coast from the U.S. Navy COAMPS model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38 , 24142437.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Janjic, Z. I., 2002: Nonsingular implementation of the Mellor–Yamada level 2.5 scheme in the NCEP meso models. NCEP Office Note 437, 61 pp.

  • Lee-Thorp, A. M., , M. Rouault, , and J. R. E. Lutjeharms, 1999: Moisture uptake in the boundary layer above the Agulhas Current: A case study. J. Geophys. Res., 104 , 14231430.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maloney, E. D., , and D. B. Chelton, 2006: An assessment of the sea surface temperature influence on surface wind stress in numerical weather prediction and climate models. J. Climate, 19 , 27432762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mellor, G., , and T. Yamada, 1982: Development of a turbulent closure model for geophysical fluid problems. Rev. Astrophys. Space Phys., 20 , 851875.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Minobe, S., , A. Kuwano-Yoshida, , N. Komori, , S-P. Xie, , and R. J. Small, 2008: Influence of the Gulf Stream on the troposphere. Nature, 452 , 206209.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Neill, L. W., , D. B. Chelton, , and S. K. Esbensen, 2003: Observations of SST-induced perturbations of the wind stress field over the Southern Ocean on seasonal timescales. J. Climate, 16 , 23402354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Neill, L. W., , D. B. Chelton, , S. K. Esbensen, , and F. J. Wentz, 2005: High-resolution satellite measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer response to SST variations along the Agulhas Return Current. J. Climate, 18 , 27062723.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Neill, L. W., , D. B. Chelton, , S. K. Esbensen, , and N. Thum, 2008: The effects of SST-induced horizontal surface wind speed and direction gradients on midlatitude vorticity and divergence fields: Observations and numerical simulation. J. Climate, submitted.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, K-A., , and P. Cornillon, 2002: Stability-induced modification of sea surface winds over Gulf Stream rings. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 .2211, doi:10.1029/2001GL014236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, K-A., , P. Cornillon, , and D. L. Codiga, 2006: Modification of surface winds near ocean fronts: Effects of Gulf Stream rings on scatterometer (QuikSCAT, NSCAT) wind observations. J. Geophys. Res., 111 .C03021, doi:10.1029/2005JC003016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pielke, R. A., 1991: A recommended specific definition of “resolution”. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 72 , 1914.

  • Reynolds, R. W., , T. M. Smith, , C. Liu, , D. B. Chelton, , K. S. Casey, , and M. G. Schlax, 2007: Daily high-resolution-blended analyses for sea surface temperature. J. Climate, 20 , 54745496.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rouault, M., , C. J. C. Reason, , J. R. E. Lutjeharms, , and A. C. M. Beljaars, 2003: Underestimation of latent and sensible heat fluxes above the Agulhas Current in NCEP and ECMWF analyses. J. Climate, 16 , 776782.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skamarock, W. C., 2004: Evaluating mesoscale NWP models using kinetic energy spectra. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 30193032.

  • Skamarock, W. C., , J. B. Klemp, , J. Dudhia, , D. O. Gill, , D. M. Barker, , W. Wang, , and J. G. Powers, 2005: A description of the advanced research WRF version 2. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN468+STR, 88 pp.

  • Small, R. J., , S-P. Xie, , and Y. Wang, 2003: Numerical simulation of atmospheric response to Pacific tropical instability waves. J. Climate, 16 , 37233741.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Small, R. J., , S-P. Xie, , Y. Wang, , S. K. Esbensen, , and D. Vickers, 2005: Numerical simulation of boundary layer structure and cross-equatorial flow in the eastern Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci., 62 , 18121830.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Small, R. J., and Coauthors, 2008: Air-sea interaction over ocean fronts and eddies. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 45 , 274319.

  • Song, Q., , T. Hara, , P. Cornillon, , and C. A. Friehe, 2004: A comparison between observations and MM5 simulations of the marine atmospheric boundary layer across a temperature front. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 21 , 170178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Song, Q., , P. Cornillon, , and T. Hara, 2006: Surface wind response to oceanic fronts. J. Geophys. Res., 111 .C12006, doi:10.1029/2006JC003680.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spall, M. A., 2007: Midlatitude wind stress–sea surface temperature coupling in the vicinity of ocean fronts. J. Climate, 20 , 37853801.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sweet, W., , R. Fett, , J. Kerling, , and P. LaViolette, 1981: Air–sea interaction effects in the lower troposphere across the north wall of the Gulf Stream. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109 , 10421052.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tang, W., , and W. T. Liu, 1996: Equivalent neutral wind. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Publication 96-17, 8 pp.

  • Walters, M. K., 2000: Comments on “The differentiation between grid spacing and resolution and their application to numerical modeling”. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81 , 24752477.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, S-P., 2004: Satellite observations of cool ocean–atmosphere interaction. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85 , 195208.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 83 83 22
PDF Downloads 88 88 27

Coupling between Sea Surface Temperature and Low-Level Winds in Mesoscale Numerical Models

View More View Less
  • 1 College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, and Cooperative Institute for Oceanographic Satellite Studies, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon
  • | 2 College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

This study evaluates the impacts of sea surface temperature (SST) specification and grid resolution on numerical simulations of air–sea coupling near oceanic fronts through analyses of surface winds from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. The 9 May 2001 change of the boundary condition from the Reynolds SST analyses to the NOAA Real-Time Global (RTG) SST in the ECMWF model resulted in an abrupt increase in mesoscale variance of the model surface winds over the ocean. In contrast, the 21 November 2000 change of the grid resolution resulted in an abrupt increase in mesoscale variability of surface winds over mountainous regions on land but had no significant effect on winds over the ocean.

To further investigate model sensitivity to the SST boundary condition and grid resolution, a series of simulations were made with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over a domain encompassing the Agulhas return current (ARC: also called “retroflection”) region in the south Indian Ocean. Results from three WRF simulations with SST measured by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on the Earth Observing System Aqua satellite (AMSR-E) and the Reynolds and RTG SST analyses indicate the vital importance of the resolution of the SST boundary condition for accurate simulation of the air–sea coupling between SST and surface wind speed. WRF simulations with grid spacings of 40 and 25 km show that the latter increased energy only on scales shorter than 250 km. In contrast, improved resolution of SST significantly increased the mesoscale variability for scales up to 1000 km.

Further sensitivity studies with the WRF model conclude that the weak coupling of surface wind speeds from the ECMWF model to SST is likely attributable primarily to the weak response of vertical turbulent mixing to SST-induced stability in the parameterization of boundary layer turbulence, with an overestimation of vertical diffusion by about 60% on average in stable conditions and an underestimation by about 40% in unstable conditions.

Corresponding author address: Qingtao Song, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, 104 COAS Admin. Bldg., Corvallis, OR 97331-5503. Email: qsong@coas.oregonstate.edu

Abstract

This study evaluates the impacts of sea surface temperature (SST) specification and grid resolution on numerical simulations of air–sea coupling near oceanic fronts through analyses of surface winds from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. The 9 May 2001 change of the boundary condition from the Reynolds SST analyses to the NOAA Real-Time Global (RTG) SST in the ECMWF model resulted in an abrupt increase in mesoscale variance of the model surface winds over the ocean. In contrast, the 21 November 2000 change of the grid resolution resulted in an abrupt increase in mesoscale variability of surface winds over mountainous regions on land but had no significant effect on winds over the ocean.

To further investigate model sensitivity to the SST boundary condition and grid resolution, a series of simulations were made with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over a domain encompassing the Agulhas return current (ARC: also called “retroflection”) region in the south Indian Ocean. Results from three WRF simulations with SST measured by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on the Earth Observing System Aqua satellite (AMSR-E) and the Reynolds and RTG SST analyses indicate the vital importance of the resolution of the SST boundary condition for accurate simulation of the air–sea coupling between SST and surface wind speed. WRF simulations with grid spacings of 40 and 25 km show that the latter increased energy only on scales shorter than 250 km. In contrast, improved resolution of SST significantly increased the mesoscale variability for scales up to 1000 km.

Further sensitivity studies with the WRF model conclude that the weak coupling of surface wind speeds from the ECMWF model to SST is likely attributable primarily to the weak response of vertical turbulent mixing to SST-induced stability in the parameterization of boundary layer turbulence, with an overestimation of vertical diffusion by about 60% on average in stable conditions and an underestimation by about 40% in unstable conditions.

Corresponding author address: Qingtao Song, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, 104 COAS Admin. Bldg., Corvallis, OR 97331-5503. Email: qsong@coas.oregonstate.edu

Save