• Adams, J. C., , and P. N. Swarztrauber, 1999: SPHEREPACK 3.0: A model development facility. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127 , 18721878.

  • Bourke, W., 1972: An efficient, on-level, primitive equation spectral model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 100 , 683689.

  • Branstator, G., 1983: Horizontal energy propagation in a barotropic atmosphere with meridional and zonal structure. J. Atmos. Sci., 40 , 16891708.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Branstator, G., 1990: Low-frequency patterns induced by stationary waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 629648.

  • Davey, M. K., , and A. E. Gill, 1987: Experiments on tropical circulation with a simple moist model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 113 , 12371269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gill, A. E., 1980: Some simple solutions for heat-induced tropical circulation. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 106 , 447462.

  • Grose, W. L., , and B. J. Hoskins, 1979: On the influence of orography on large-scale atmospheric flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 36 , 223234.

  • Held, I. M., , and M. J. Suarez, 1978: A two-level primitive equation atmospheric model designed for climatic sensitivity experiments. J. Atmos. Sci., 35 , 206229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Held, I. M., , S. W. Lyons, , and S. Nigam, 1989: Transients and the extratropical response to El Niño. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 163174.

  • Holton, J. R., 1992: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology. 3rd ed. Academic Press, 511 pp.

  • Horel, J. D., , and J. M. Wallace, 1981: Planetary-scale atmospheric phenomena associated with the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109 , 813829.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B. J., , and A. J. Simmons, 1975: A multi-layer spectral model and the semi-implicit method. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 101 , 637655.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B. J., , and D. J. Karoly, 1981: The steady linear response of a spherical atmospheric thermal and orographic forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 38 , 11791196.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jin, F-F., , and B. J. Hoskins, 1995: The direct response to tropical heating in a baroclinic atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 52 , 307319.

  • Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 437471.

  • Kasahara, A., , and P. L. da Silva Dias, 1986: Response of planetary waves to stationary tropical heating in a global atmosphere with meridional and vertical shear. J. Atmos. Sci., 43 , 18931911.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kleeman, R., 1989: A modeling study of the effect of the Andes on the summertime circulation of tropical South America. J. Atmos. Sci., 46 , 33443362.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klein, S. A., , B. J. Soden, , and N-C. Lau, 1999: Remote sea surface temperature variations during ENSO: Evidence for a tropical atmospheric bridge. J. Climate, 12 , 917932.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kok, C. J., , and J. D. Opsteegh, 1985: On the possible causes of anomalies in seasonal mean circulation patterns during the 1982/83 El Niño event. J. Atmos. Sci., 42 , 677694.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, N-C., 1981: A diagnostic study of recurrent meteorological anomalies appearing in a 15-year simulation with a GFDL general circulation model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109 , 22872311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, J. L., , B. E. Mapes, , and W. Han, 2008: What are the sources of mechanical dampings in Matsuno–Gill models? J. Climate, 21 , 165179.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matsuno, T., 1966: Quasi-geostrophic motions in the equatorial area. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 44 , 2543.

  • Navarra, A., , W. F. Stern, , and K. Miyakoda, 1994: Reduction of the Gibbs oscillation in spectral model simulations. J. Climate, 7 , 11691183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neelin, J. D., 1988: A simple model for surface stress and low-level flow in the tropical atmosphere driven by prescribed heating. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 114 , 747770.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peixoto, J. P., , and A. H. Oort, 1992: Physics of Climate. American Institute of Physics, 520 pp.

  • Robert, A. J., 1966: The integration of a low order spectral form of primitive meteorological equations. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 44 , 237245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sardeshmukh, P. D., , and B. J. Hoskins, 1988: The generation of global rotational flow by steady idealized tropical divergence. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 12281251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schopf, P. S., , and M. J. Suarez, 1988: Vacillations in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. J. Atmos. Sci., 45 , 549566.

  • Straus, D. M., , S. Corti, , and F. Molteni, 2007: Circulation regimes: Chaotic variability versus SST-forced predictability. J. Climate, 20 , 22512272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ting, M., , and I. M. Held, 1990: The stationary wave response to tropical SST anomaly in an idealized GCM. J. Atmos. Sci., 47 , 25462566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ting, M., , and P. D. Sardeshmukh, 1993: Factors determining the extratropical response to equatorial diabatic heating anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 907918.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallace, J. M., , and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the northern hemispheric winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109 , 784812.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., , and T. Li, 1993: A simple tropical atmosphere model of relevance to short-term climate variations. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 260284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., , and X. Xie, 1996: Low-frequency equatorial waves in vertically sheared zonal flow. Part I: Stable waves. J. Atmos. Sci., 53 , 449467.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, C., , and D. B. Enfield, 2001: The tropical Western Hemisphere warm pool. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28 , 16351638.

  • Wang, C., , S-K. Lee, , and D. B. Enfield, 2007: Impact of the Atlantic warm pool on the summer climate of the Western Hemisphere. J. Climate, 20 , 50215040.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watanabe, M., , and M. Kimoto, 2000: Atmosphere-ocean thermal coupling in the North Atlantic: A positive feedback. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126 , 33433369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watanabe, M., , and F-F. Jin, 2003: A moist linear baroclinic model: Coupled dynamical-convective response to El Niño. J. Climate, 16 , 11211139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, P. J., 1981: Mechanisms determining the atmospheric response to sea surface temperature anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci., 38 , 554571.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zebiak, S., 1986: Atmospheric convergence feedback in a simple model for El Niño. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114 , 12631271.

  • Zebiak, S., , and M. A. Cane, 1987: A model El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 22622278.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 113 113 20
PDF Downloads 110 110 15

A Simple Atmospheric Model of the Local and Teleconnection Responses to Tropical Heating Anomalies

View More View Less
  • 1 Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies, University of Miami, Miami, Florida
  • | 2 NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, Florida
  • | 3 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, Florida
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

A minimal complexity model of both the local and remote stationary responses of the atmosphere to tropical heating anomalies is described and demonstrated. Two levels are recast as baroclinic and barotropic components with thermal advection in the tropics neglected. The model is linearized about some idealized and realistic background wind fields and forced with a localized heating for illustration. In the tropics, the baroclinic responses are familiar from the Matsuno–Gill model; these excite barotropic responses by advective interactions with vertical background wind shear. The barotropic signals are in turn transmitted to high latitudes only in the presence of barotropic background westerly winds. For an El Niño–like equatorial heating, the barotropic response has anticyclones to the north and south of the heating reinforcing (opposing) the anticyclonic (cyclonic) baroclinic gyres in the upper (lower) troposphere. With realistic background flows, the model reproduces the hemispheric asymmetry of ENSO teleconnections. Further experiments show that the winter hemisphere is favored mainly because the summer hemispheric subtropical jet is farther from the heating latitude, suggesting that the summer hemisphere can still host robust stationary Rossby waves if the heating occurs in the vicinity of the jet. As an example, it is shown that summer heating over the Atlantic warm pool (AWP) can have a remote influence on the summer climate of North America and Europe.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Sang-Ki Lee, NOAA/AOML, 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149. Email: Sang-Ki.Lee@noaa.gov

Abstract

A minimal complexity model of both the local and remote stationary responses of the atmosphere to tropical heating anomalies is described and demonstrated. Two levels are recast as baroclinic and barotropic components with thermal advection in the tropics neglected. The model is linearized about some idealized and realistic background wind fields and forced with a localized heating for illustration. In the tropics, the baroclinic responses are familiar from the Matsuno–Gill model; these excite barotropic responses by advective interactions with vertical background wind shear. The barotropic signals are in turn transmitted to high latitudes only in the presence of barotropic background westerly winds. For an El Niño–like equatorial heating, the barotropic response has anticyclones to the north and south of the heating reinforcing (opposing) the anticyclonic (cyclonic) baroclinic gyres in the upper (lower) troposphere. With realistic background flows, the model reproduces the hemispheric asymmetry of ENSO teleconnections. Further experiments show that the winter hemisphere is favored mainly because the summer hemispheric subtropical jet is farther from the heating latitude, suggesting that the summer hemisphere can still host robust stationary Rossby waves if the heating occurs in the vicinity of the jet. As an example, it is shown that summer heating over the Atlantic warm pool (AWP) can have a remote influence on the summer climate of North America and Europe.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Sang-Ki Lee, NOAA/AOML, 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149. Email: Sang-Ki.Lee@noaa.gov

Save