• Andersson, E., and Coauthors, 2005: Assimilation and modeling of the atmospheric hydrological cycle in the ECMWF forecasting system. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86 , 387402.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Back, L. E., , and C. S. Bretherton, 2006: Geographic variability in the export of moist static energy and vertical motion profiles in the tropical Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 , L17810. doi:10.1029/2006GL026672.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ebisuzaki, W., 1996: Consistency of the diabatic heating in the NMC/NCAR reanalysis. Proc. 20th Climate Diagnostic Workshop, Seattle, WA, NOAA/Climate Prediction Center, 232–234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gibson, J. K., , P. Kållberg, , S. Uppala, , A. Hernandez, , A. Nomura, , and E. Serrano, 1997: ERA-15 description. ERA-15 Project Rep. Series No. 1, ECMWF, 84 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holopainen, E., , and C. Fortelius, 1986: Accuracy of estimates of atmospheric large-scale energy flux divergence. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114 , 19101921.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B. J., , H. H. Hsu, , I. N. James, , M. Masutani, , P. D. Sardeshmukh, , and G. H. White, 1989: Diagnostics of the global atmospheric circulation based on ECMWF analyses 1979–1989. WCRP-27, WMO/TD-No. 326, World Meteorological Organization, 217 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houze, R. A., 1997: Stratiform precipitation in regions of convection: A meteorological paradox. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 21792196.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, R. H., , and P. E. Ciesielski, 2000: Rainfall and radiative heating rates from TOGA COARE atmospheric budgets. J. Atmos. Sci., 57 , 14971514.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kållberg, P., , P. Berrisford, , B. Hoskins, , A. Simmons, , S. Uppala, , S. Lamy-Thépaut, , and R. Hine, 2005: ERA-40 atlas. ERA-40 Project Rep. Series 19, 191 pp. [Available online at http://www.ecmwf.int/research/era/ERA-40_Atlas/docs/index.html.].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77 , 437471.

  • Mesinger, F., and Coauthors, 2006: North American Regional Reanalysis. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 87 , 343360.

  • Mitchell, T. D., , and P. D. Jones, 2005: An improved method of constructing database of monthly climate observations and associated high-resolution grids. Int. J. Climatol., 25 , 693712.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nigam, S., 1994: On the dynamical basis for the Asian summer monsoon rainfall—El Niño relationship. J. Climate, 7 , 17501771.

  • Nigam, S., , C. Chung, , and E. DeWeaver, 2000: ENSO diabatic heating in ECMWF and NCEP reanalyses, and NCAR CCM3 simulation. J. Climate, 13 , 31523171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pan, H-L., , and W. S. Wu, 1994: Implementing a mass flux convective parameterization package for the NMC medium-range forecast model. Preprints, 10th Conf. on Numerical Weather Prediction, Portland, OR, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 96–98.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rajeevan, M., , J. Bhate, , J. D. Kale, , and B. Lal, 2006: A high resolution daily gridded rainfall data for Indian region: Analysis of break and active monsoon spells. Curr. Sci., 91 , 296306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schumacher, C., , R. A. Houze, , and I. Kraucunas, 2004: The tropical dynamical response to latent heating estimates derived from TRMM precipitation radar. J. Atmos. Sci., 61 , 13411358.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schumacher, C., , M. H. Zhang, , and P. E. Ciesielski, 2007: Heating structures of the TRMM field campaigns. J. Atmos. Sci., 64 , 25932610.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tao, W-K., , S. Lang, , J. Simpson, , and R. Adler, 1993: Retrieval algorithms for estimating the vertical profiles of latent heat release: Their applications for TRMM. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 71 , 685700.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tao, W-K., and Coauthors, 2001: Retrieved vertical profiles of latent heat release using TRMM rainfall products for February 1998. J. Appl. Meteor., 40 , 957982.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tiedtke, M., 1989: A comprehensive mass flux scheme for cumulus parameterization models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117 , 17791800.

  • Tiedtke, M., 1993: Representation of clouds in large-scale models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121 , 30403061.

  • Ting, M., , and P. D. Sardeshmukh, 1993: Factors determining the extratropical responses to equatorial diabatic heating anomalies. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 907918.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., , D. P. Stepaniak, , J. W. Hurrell, , and M. Fiorino, 2001: Quality of reanalyses in the tropics. J. Climate, 14 , 14991510.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trenberth, K. E., , D. P. Stepaniak, , and J. Caron, 2002: Accuracy of atmospheric energy budgets from reanalyses. J. Climate, 15 , 33433360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Uppala, S., and Coauthors, 2005: The ERA-40 Re-Analysis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131 , 29613012.

  • White, G., , and S. Saha, 1996: Three-dimensional diabatic heating fields from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Proc. 20th Climate Diagnostic Workshop, Seattle, WA, NOAA/Climate Prediction Center, 284–287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, P., , and P. Arkin, 1996: Analyses of global monthly precipitation using gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model predictions. J. Climate, 9 , 840858.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yanai, M., , and T. Tomita, 1998: Seasonal and interannual variability of atmospheric heat sources and moisture sinks as determined from NCEP–NCAR Reanalysis. J. Climate, 11 , 463482.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 85 85 14
PDF Downloads 74 74 16

Residual Diagnosis of Diabatic Heating from ERA-40 and NCEP Reanalyses: Intercomparisons with TRMM

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Diabatic heating is diagnosed from the 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40) circulation as a residue in the thermodynamic equation. The heating distribution is compared with the heating structure diagnosed from NCEP and 15-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-15) circulation and latent heating generated from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations using the convective–stratiform heating (CSH) algorithm.

The ERA-40 residual heating in the tropics is found to be stronger than NCEP’s (and ERA-15), especially in July when its zonal–vertical average is twice as large. The bias is strongest over the Maritime Continent in January and over the eastern basins and Africa in July. Comparisons with precipitation indicate ERA-40 heating to be much more realistic over the eastern Pacific but excessive over the Maritime Continent, by at least 20% in January.

Intercomparison of precipitation estimates from heating-profile integrals and station and satellite analyses reveals the TRMM CSH latent heating to be chronically weak by as much as a factor of 2! It is the low-side outlier among nine precipitation estimates in three of the four analyzed regions. No less worrisome is the inconsistency between the integral of the CSH latent heating profile in the tropics and the TRMM precipitation retrievals constraining the CSH algorithm (e.g., the 3A25 analysis).

Confronting TRMM’s diagnosis of latent heating from local rainfall retrievals and local cumulus-model heating profiles with heating based on the large-scale assimilated circulation is a defining attribute of this study.

Corresponding author address: Sumant Nigam, 3419 Computer and Space Sciences Bldg., University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD 20742-2425. Email: nigam@atmos.umd.edu

Abstract

Diabatic heating is diagnosed from the 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40) circulation as a residue in the thermodynamic equation. The heating distribution is compared with the heating structure diagnosed from NCEP and 15-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-15) circulation and latent heating generated from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations using the convective–stratiform heating (CSH) algorithm.

The ERA-40 residual heating in the tropics is found to be stronger than NCEP’s (and ERA-15), especially in July when its zonal–vertical average is twice as large. The bias is strongest over the Maritime Continent in January and over the eastern basins and Africa in July. Comparisons with precipitation indicate ERA-40 heating to be much more realistic over the eastern Pacific but excessive over the Maritime Continent, by at least 20% in January.

Intercomparison of precipitation estimates from heating-profile integrals and station and satellite analyses reveals the TRMM CSH latent heating to be chronically weak by as much as a factor of 2! It is the low-side outlier among nine precipitation estimates in three of the four analyzed regions. No less worrisome is the inconsistency between the integral of the CSH latent heating profile in the tropics and the TRMM precipitation retrievals constraining the CSH algorithm (e.g., the 3A25 analysis).

Confronting TRMM’s diagnosis of latent heating from local rainfall retrievals and local cumulus-model heating profiles with heating based on the large-scale assimilated circulation is a defining attribute of this study.

Corresponding author address: Sumant Nigam, 3419 Computer and Space Sciences Bldg., University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD 20742-2425. Email: nigam@atmos.umd.edu

Save