• Ashok, K., S. K. Behera, S. A. Rao, H. Weng, and T. Yamagata, 2007: El Niño Modoki and its possible teleconnection. J. Geophys. Res., 112 , C11007. doi:10.1029/2006JC003798.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, C-P., Y. Zhang, and T. Li, 2000a: Interannual and interdecadal variations of the East Asian summer monsoon and tropical Pacific SSTs. Part I: Roles of the subtropical ridge. J. Climate, 13 , 43104325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, C-P., Y. Zhang, and T. Li, 2000b: Interannual and interdecadal variations of the East Asian summer monsoon and tropical Pacific SSTs. Part II: Meridional structure of the monsoon. J. Climate, 13 , 43264340.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, C-S., and Y-L. Chen, 2003: The rainfall characteristics of Taiwan. Mon. Wea. Rev., 131 , 13231341.

  • Chen, J-M., T. Li, and C-F. Shih, 2007: Fall precipitation barrier of sea surface temperature in the South China Sea associated with ENSO. J. Climate, 20 , 158172.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, L., M. Dong, and Y. Shao, 1992: The characteristics of interannual variations on the East Asian monsoon. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 70 , 397421.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chou, C., 2004: Establishment of the low-level wind anomalies over the western North Pacific during ENSO development. J. Climate, 17 , 21952212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chou, C., J-Y. Tu, and J-Y. Yu, 2003: Interannual variability of the western North Pacific summer monsoon: Differences between ENSO and non-ENSO years. J. Climate, 16 , 22752287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chou, C., L-F. Huang, L. Tseng, J-Y. Tu, and P-H. Tan, 2009: Annual cycle of rainfall in the western North Pacific and East Asian sector. J. Climate, 22 , 20732094.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chou, S-H., M-D. Chou, P-K. Chan, P-H. Lin, and K-H. Wang, 2004: Tropical warm pool surface heat budgets and temperature: Contrasts between 1997/98 El Niño and 1998/99 La Niña. J. Climate, 17 , 18451858.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ding, Y., and J. C. L. Chan, 2005: The East Asian summer monsoon: An overview. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 89 , 117142.

  • Geng, Q. Z., A. Sumi, and A. Numaguti, 2000: Role of transients in the dynamics of East Asian summer seasonal mean circulation anomalies—A study of 1993 and 1994. J. Climate, 13 , 35113531.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guan, Z., and T. Yamagata, 2003: The unusual summer of 1994 in East Asia: IOD teleconnections. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 , 1544. doi:10.1029/2002GL016831.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hsu, H-H., and X. Liu, 2003: Relationship between the Tibetan Plateau heating and East Asian summer monsoon rainfall. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 , 2066. doi:10.1029/2003GL017909.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hsu, H-H., and S-M. Lin, 2007: Asymmetry of the tripole rainfall pattern during East Asian summer. J. Climate, 20 , 44434458.

  • Huang, R., and F. Sun, 1992: Impacts of the tropical western Pacific on the East Asian summer monsoon. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 70 , 243256.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kanamitsu, M., W. Ebisuzaki, J. Woollen, S-K. Yang, J. J. Hnilo, M. Fiorino, and G. L. Potter, 2002: NCEP–DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83 , 16311643.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kang, I., 2004: Current status of AGCM monsoon simulations. East Asian Monsoon, C.-P. Chang, Ed., World Scientific Series on Meteorology of East Asia, Vol. 2, World Scientific, 301–331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kawamura, R., T. Matsuura, and S. Iisuka, 2001: Interannual atmosphere–ocean variations in the tropical western North Pacific relevant to the Asian summer monsoon–ENSO coupling. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 79 , 883898.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, K-M., 1992: East Asian summer monsoon rainfall variability and climate teleconnection. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 70 , 211241.

  • Lau, K-M., and W. Bua, 1998: Mechanism of monsoon–Southern Oscillation coupling: Insights from GCM experiments. Climate Dyn., 14 , 759779.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, K-M., and H. Weng, 2001: Coherent modes of global SST and summer rainfall over China: An assessment of the regional impacts of the 1997–98 El Niño. J. Climate, 14 , 12941308.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, K-M., and H. T. Wu, 2001: Principal modes of rainfall–SST variability of the Asian summer monsoon: A reassessment of the monsoon–ENSO relationship. J. Climate, 14 , 28802895.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, K-M., K-M. Kim, and S. Yang, 2000: Dynamical and boundary forcing characteristics of regional components of the Asian summer monsoon. J. Climate, 13 , 24612482.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, N-C., and M. J. Nath, 2000: Impact of ENSO on the variability of the Asian–Australian monsoons as simulated in GCM experiments. J. Climate, 13 , 42874309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, N-C., and M. J. Nath, 2006: ENSO modulation of the interannual and intraseasonal variability of the East Asian monsoon—A model study. J. Climate, 19 , 45084530.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, N-C., M. J. Nath, and H. Wang, 2004: Simulations by a GFDL GCM of ENSO-related variability of the coupled atmosphere–ocean system in the East Asian Monsoon region. East Asian Monsoon, C.-P. Chang, Ed., World Scientific Series on Meteorology of East Asia, Vol. 2, World Scientific, 271–300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, T., Y. C. Tung, and J. W. Hwu, 2005: Remote and local SST forcing in shaping Asian–Australian monsoon. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 83 , 153167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LinHo, and B. Wang, 2002: The time–space structure of the Asian–Pacific summer monsoon: A fast annual cycle view. J. Climate, 15 , 20012019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, X. D., and M. Yanai, 2002: Influence of Eurasian spring snow cover on Asian summer rainfall. Int. J. Climatol., 22 , 10751089.

  • Meehl, G. A., J. M. Arblaster, and J. Loschnigg, 2003: Coupled ocean–atmosphere dynamical processes in the tropical Indian and Pacific and the TBO. J. Climate, 16 , 21382158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nitta, T., 1987: Convective activities in the tropical western Pacific and their impacts on the Northern Hemisphere summer circulation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 65 , 165171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nitta, T., and Z-Z. Hu, 1996: Summer climate variability in China and its association with 500-hPa height and tropical convection. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 74 , 425445.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, C-K., and S. D. Schubert, 1997: On the nature of the 1994 East Asian summer drought. J. Climate, 10 , 10561070.

  • Reynolds, R. W., N. A. Rayner, T. M. Smith, D. C. Stokes, and W. Wang, 2002: An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. J. Climate, 15 , 16091625.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ropelewski, C. F., and M. S. Halpert, 1987: Global and regional scale precipitation associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115 , 16061626.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saji, N. H., and T. Yamagata, 2003: Possible impacts of Indian Ocean dipole events on global climate. Climate Res., 25 , 151169.

  • Saji, N. H., B. N. Goswami, P. N. Vinayachandran, and T. Yamagata, 1999: A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean. Nature, 401 , 360363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shen, S., and K-M. Lau, 1995: Biennial oscillation associated with the East Asian summer monsoon and tropical sea surface temperatures. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 73 , 105124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Su, H., J. D. Neelin, and C. Chou, 2001: Tropical teleconnection and local response to SST anomalies during the 1997–1998 El Niño. J. Geophys. Res., 106 , 2002520043.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sumi, A., M. Kimoto, and X. Shen, 2004: Simulation studies of the Asian monsoon using the CCSR/NIES AGCM. East Asian Monsoon, C.-P. Chang, Ed., World Scientific Series on Meteorology of East Asia, Vol. 2, World Scientific, 331–353.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tanaka, M., 1997: Interannual and interdecadal variations of the western North Pacific monsoon and the East Asian baiu rainfall and their relationship to ENSO cycles. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 75 , 11091123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tian, S-F., and T. Yasunari, 1992: Time and space structure of interannual variations in summer rainfall over China. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 70 , 585596.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., and J. C. L. Chan, 2002: How ENSO regulates tropical storm activity over the western North Pacific. J. Climate, 15 , 16431658.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., and Q. Zhang, 2002: Pacific–East Asian teleconnection. Part II: How the Philippine Sea anomalous anticyclone is established during El Niño development. J. Climate, 15 , 32523265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., R. Wu, and X. Fu, 2000: Pacific–East Asian teleconnection: How does ENSO affect East Asian climate? J. Climate, 13 , 15171536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., R. Wu, and K-M. Lau, 2001: Interannual variability of the Asian summer monsoon: Contrasts between the Indian and the western North Pacific–East Asian monsoons. J. Climate, 14 , 40734090.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., Q. Ding, X. Fu, I-S. Kang, K. Jin, J. Shukla, and F. Doblas-Reyes, 2005: Fundamental challenge in simulation and prediction of summer monsoon rainfall. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32 , L15711. doi:10.1029/2005GL022734.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watanabe, M., and F-F. Jin, 2002: Role of Indian Ocean warming in the development of Philippine Sea anticyclone during ENSO. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 , 1478. doi:10.1029/2001GL014318.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weng, H., K-M. Lau, and K-K. Xue, 1999: Multi-scale summer rainfall variability over China and its long-term link to global sea surface temperature variability. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 77 , 845857.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weng, H., K. Ashok, S. K. Behera, S. A. Rao, and T. Yamagata, 2007: Impacts of recent El Niño on Modoki dry/wet conditions in the Pacific rim during boreal summer. Climate Dyn., 29 , 113129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, R., and B. Wang, 2000: Interannual variability of summer monsoon onset over the western North Pacific and the underlying processes. J. Climate, 13 , 24832501.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, R., and B. P. Kirtman, 2007: Observed relationship of spring and summer East Asian rainfall with winter and spring Eurasian snow. J. Climate, 20 , 12851304.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, R., Z-Z. Hu, and B. P. Kirtman, 2003: Evolution of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in East Asia. J. Climate, 16 , 37423758.

  • Wu, R., B. P. Kirtman, and K. Pegion, 2006: Local air–sea relationship in observations and model simulations. J. Climate, 19 , 49144932.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xie, P., and P. A. Arkin, 1997: Global precipitation: A 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical outputs. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78 , 25392558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yeh, M-C., and T-C. Chen, 2000: Seasonal variation of the rainfall over Taiwan. Int. J. Climatol., 20 , 803809.

  • Yoo, S. H., S. Yang, and C. H. Ho, 2006: Variability of the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature and its impacts on Asian–Australian monsoon climate. J. Geophys. Res., 111 , D03108. doi:10.1029/2005JD006001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, R., and A. Sumi, 2002: Moisture circulation over East Asia during El Niño episode in northern winter, spring and autumn. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 80 , 213227.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 6 6 6
PDF Downloads 3 3 3

El Niño Impacts on Precipitation in the Western North Pacific–East Asian Sector

View More View Less
  • 1 Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, and Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
  • | 2 Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan
  • | 3 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan
  • | 4 Department of Earth Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan
  • | 5 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
Restricted access

Abstract

In this study, the western North Pacific–East Asian (WNP–EA) rainfall anomaly induced by the strong El Niño in 1982–83, 1991–92, and 1997–98, and its association with the mean state, are examined. Over the northern part of the WNP–EA region (north of 20°N), which is dominated by southwest–northeast tilting frontal systems, positive rainfall anomalies from the fall before the El Niño peak phase (year 0) to the first wet period after the peak phase (year 1) are affected by low- and midlevel horizontal moisture convergence anomalies induced by low-level anticyclonic circulation anomalies over the WNP region that are associated with El Niño. Over the southern part of the WNP–EA region (south of 20°N), which is dominated by tropical convection, positive precipitation anomalies in the first and second wet periods of year 0 and negative precipitation anomalies from the fall of year 0 to the second wet period of year 1 are associated with the variation of the net energy into the atmosphere, which is mainly contributed to by local evaporation anomalies. The mechanisms for inducing the precipitation anomalies over both northern and southern parts of the WNP–EA region are similar to the mechanisms of the mean precipitation in each rainy period, but the detailed processes for the southern WNP–EA precipitation anomalies are more complicated, particularly in summer. In the first wet periods of years 0 and 1 and the fall of year 0, the precipitation anomalies are induced by evaporation anomalies that are contributed to by similar effects of sea surface temperature (SST) and wind speed anomalies. In the second wet period of years 0 and 1, on the other hand, near-surface wind speed anomalies affect precipitation via the process of evaporation. These wind speed anomalies are associated with the concurrence of the low-level circulation anomalies over the WNP region and the Asian summer monsoon trough. The SST anomalies are merely a response to evaporation and downward solar radiation anomalies. The dependence of the rainfall anomalies on the mean state, that is, similar causes for the rainfall mean and anomalies in each rainy period, implies that the mean state plays a key role in simulating the interannual variation over the WNP–EA region.

Corresponding author address: Chia Chou, Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 1-48, Taipei 11529, Taiwan. Email: chiachou@rcec.sinica.edu.tw

Abstract

In this study, the western North Pacific–East Asian (WNP–EA) rainfall anomaly induced by the strong El Niño in 1982–83, 1991–92, and 1997–98, and its association with the mean state, are examined. Over the northern part of the WNP–EA region (north of 20°N), which is dominated by southwest–northeast tilting frontal systems, positive rainfall anomalies from the fall before the El Niño peak phase (year 0) to the first wet period after the peak phase (year 1) are affected by low- and midlevel horizontal moisture convergence anomalies induced by low-level anticyclonic circulation anomalies over the WNP region that are associated with El Niño. Over the southern part of the WNP–EA region (south of 20°N), which is dominated by tropical convection, positive precipitation anomalies in the first and second wet periods of year 0 and negative precipitation anomalies from the fall of year 0 to the second wet period of year 1 are associated with the variation of the net energy into the atmosphere, which is mainly contributed to by local evaporation anomalies. The mechanisms for inducing the precipitation anomalies over both northern and southern parts of the WNP–EA region are similar to the mechanisms of the mean precipitation in each rainy period, but the detailed processes for the southern WNP–EA precipitation anomalies are more complicated, particularly in summer. In the first wet periods of years 0 and 1 and the fall of year 0, the precipitation anomalies are induced by evaporation anomalies that are contributed to by similar effects of sea surface temperature (SST) and wind speed anomalies. In the second wet period of years 0 and 1, on the other hand, near-surface wind speed anomalies affect precipitation via the process of evaporation. These wind speed anomalies are associated with the concurrence of the low-level circulation anomalies over the WNP region and the Asian summer monsoon trough. The SST anomalies are merely a response to evaporation and downward solar radiation anomalies. The dependence of the rainfall anomalies on the mean state, that is, similar causes for the rainfall mean and anomalies in each rainy period, implies that the mean state plays a key role in simulating the interannual variation over the WNP–EA region.

Corresponding author address: Chia Chou, Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 1-48, Taipei 11529, Taiwan. Email: chiachou@rcec.sinica.edu.tw

Save