• Bäumer, D., , R. Rinke, , and B. Vogel, 2008: Weekly periodicities of aerosol optical thickness over central Europe—Evidence of anthropogenic direct aerosol effect. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8 , 8390.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Betts, A. K., 2004: Understanding hydrometeorology using global models. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85 , 16731688.

  • Betts, A. K., , M. Zhao, , P. A. Dirmeyer, , and A. C. M. Beljaars, 2006: Comparison of ERA40 and NCEP/DOE near-surface datasets with other ISLSCP-II datasets. J. Geophys. Res., 111 , D22S04. doi:10.1029/2006JD007174.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bowen, I. S., 1926: The ratio of heat losses by conduction and by evaporation from any water surface. Phys. Rev., 26 , 779787.

  • Camillo, P. J., , and R. J. Gurney, 1986: A resistance parameter for bare-soil evaporation models. Soil Sci., 141 , 95105.

  • Carslaw, D. C., , and N. Carslaw, 2007: Detecting and characterising small changes in urban nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Atmos. Environ., 41 , 47234733.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collatz, G. J., , L. Bounoua, , S. O. Los, , D. A. Randall, , I. Y. Fung, , and P. J. Sellers, 2000: A mechanism for the influence of vegetation on the response of the diurnal temperature range to changing climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27 , 33813384.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dai, A., , A. D. Del Genio, , and I. Y. Fung, 1997: Clouds, precipitation and temperature range. Nature, 386 , 665666.

  • Dai, A., , K. E. Trenberth, , and T. R. Karl, 1999: Effects of clouds, soil moisture, precipitation and water vapor on diurnal temperature range. J. Climate, 12 , 24512473.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Darnell, W. L., , W. F. Staylor, , S. K. Gupta, , N. A. Ritchey, , and A. C. Wilber, 1992: Seasonal variation of surface radiation budget derived from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project C1 data. J. Geophys. Res., 97 , (D14). 1574115760.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diner, D. J., and Coauthors, 1998: Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) description and experiment overview. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 36 , 10721087.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eastman, J. L., , M. B. Coughenour, , and R. A. Pielke, 2001: The regional effects of CO2 and landscape change using a coupled plant and meteorological model. Global Change Biol., 7 , 797815.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Forster, P. Mde F., , and S. Soloman, 2003: Observations of a weekend effect in diurnal temperature range. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 100 , 1122511230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gallo, K. P., , D. R. Easterling, , and T. C. Peterson, 1996: The influence of land use/land cover on climatological values of the diurnal temperature range. J. Climate, 9 , 29412944.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Geerts, B., 2003: Empirical estimation of the monthly-mean daily temperature range. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 74 , 145165.

  • Gong, D-Y., , D. Guo, , and C-H. Ho, 2006: Weekend effect in diurnal temperature range in China: Opposite signals between winter and summer. J. Geophys. Res., 111 , D18113. doi:10.1029/2006JD007068.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gu, L., and Coauthors, 2007: Influences of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages on the land surface fluxes and radiative temperature. J. Geophys. Res., 112 , D02107. doi:10.1029/2006JD007425.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hansen, J., , M. Sato, , and R. Ruedy, 1995: Long-term changes of the diurnal temperature cycle: Implications about mechanisms of global climate change. Atmos. Res., 37 , 175209.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hastie, T. J., , and R. Tibshirani, 1990: Generalized Additive Models. Chapman and Hall, 352 pp.

  • Kalnay, E., , and M. Cai, 2003: Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate. Nature, 423 , 528531.

  • Kan, H., 2007: Diurnal temperature range and daily mortality in Shanghai, China. Environ. Res., 103 , 424431.

  • Karl, T. R., and Coauthors, 1993: A new perspective on recent global warming: Asymmetric trends of daily maximum and minimum temperature. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74 , 10071023.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Linacre, E., 1982: The effect of altitude on the daily range of temperature. Int. J. Climatol., 2 , 375382.

  • Linacre, E., 1992: Climate Data and Resources: A Reference and Guide. Routledge, 366 pp.

  • Mahmood, R., , S. A. Foster, , T. Keeling, , K. G. Hubbard, , C. Carlson, , and R. Leeper, 2006: Impacts of irrigation on 20th Century temperature in the northern Great Plains. Global Planet. Change, 54 , 118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mitchell, T. D., , and P. D. Jones, 2005: An improved method of constructing a database of monthly climate observations and associated high-resolution grids. Int. J. Climatol., 25 , 693712.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Montgomery, D. C., , and E. A. Peck, 2006: Introduction to Linear Regression Analysis. 4th ed. Wiley/Blackwell, 640 pp.

  • Murphy, D. M., , S. L. Capps, , J. S. Daniel, , G. J. Frost, , and W. H. White, 2008: Weekly patterns of aerosol in the United States. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8 , 27292739.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Myhre, G., , and A. Myhre, 2003: Uncertainties in radiative forcing due to surface albedo changes caused by land-use changes. J. Climate, 16 , 15111524.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ohmura, A., 1984: On the cause of FRAM type seasonal change in diurnal amplitude of air temperature in polar regions. Int. J. Climatol., 4 , 325338.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Przybylak, R., 2000: Diurnal temperature range in the arctic and its relation to hemispheric and arctic circulation patterns. Int. J. Climatol., 20 , 231253.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • R Development Core Team, cited. 2007: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. [Available online at http://www.R-project.org].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rebetez, M., , and M. Beniston, 1998: Changes in sunshine duration are correlated with changes in daily temperature range this century: An analysis of Swiss climatological data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25 , 36113613.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reiss, R., 2006: Temporal trends and weekend-weekday differences for benzene and 1,3-butadiene in Houston, Texas. Atmos. Environ., 40 , 47114724.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schwartz, M. D., 1996: Examining the spring discontinuity in daily temperature ranges. J. Climate, 9 , 803808.

  • Sen Roy, S., , R. Mahmood, , D. Niyogi, , M. Lei, , S. A. Foster, , K. G. Hubbard, , E. Douglas, , and R. Pielke Sr., 2007: Impacts of the agricultural Green Revolution–induced land use changes on air temperatures in India. J. Geophys. Res., 112 , D21108. doi:10.1029/2007JD008834.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tuomenvirta, H., , H. Alexandersson, , A. Drebs, , P. Frich, , and P. O. Nordli, 2000: Trends in Nordic and Arctic temperature extremes and ranges. J. Climate, 13 , 977990.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Uppala, S. M., and Coauthors, 2005: The ERA-40 Re-Analysis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131 , 29613012.

  • Viterbo, P., , A. Beljaars, , J-F. Mahfouf, , and J. Teixeira, 1999: The representation of soil moisture freezing and its impact on the stable boundary layer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125 , 24012426.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wild, M., , A. Ohmura, , and K. Makowski, 2007: Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34 , L04702. doi:10.1029/2006GL028031.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, M. F., , and A. Henderson-Sellers, 1985: A global archive of land cover and soils data for use in general circulation climate models. Int. J. Climatol., 5 , 119143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wood, S. N., 2006: Generalized Additive Models: An Introduction with R. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 416 pp.

  • Zhou, L., , R. E. Dickinson, , Y. Tian, , R. S. Vose, , and Y. Dai, 2007: Impact of vegetation removal and soil aridation on diurnal temperature range in a semiarid region: Application to the Sahel. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104 , 1793717942.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, L., , A. Dai, , Y. Dai, , R. S. Vose, , C-Z. Zou, , Y. Tian, , and H. Chen, 2009: Spatial dependence of diurnal temperature range trends on precipitation from 1950 to 2004. Climate Dyn., 32 , 429440.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 60 60 7
PDF Downloads 55 55 10

An Empirical Study of Geographic and Seasonal Variations in Diurnal Temperature Range

View More View Less
  • 1 School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

The diurnal temperature range (DTR) of surface air over land varies geographically and seasonally. The authors have investigated these variations using generalized additive models (GAMs), a nonlinear regression methodology. With DTR as the response variable, meteorological and land surface parameters were treated as explanatory variables. Regression curves related the deviation of DTR from its mean value to values of the meteorological and land surface variables. Cloud cover, soil moisture, distance inland, solar radiation, and elevation were combined as explanatory variables in an ensemble of 84 GAM models that used data grouped into seven vegetation types and 12 months. The ensemble explained 80% of the geographical and seasonal variation in DTR. Vegetation type and cloud cover exhibited the strongest relationships with DTR. Shortwave radiation, distance inland, and elevation were positively correlated with DTR, whereas cloud cover and soil moisture were negatively correlated. A separate analysis of the surface energy budget showed that changes in net longwave radiation represented the effects of solar and hydrological variation on DTR. It is found that vegetation and its associated climate is important for DTR variation in addition to the climatic influence of cloud cover, soil moisture, and solar radiation. It is also found that surface net longwave radiation is a powerful diagnostic of DTR variation, explaining over 95% of the seasonal variation of DTR in tropical regions.

Corresponding author address: Lawrence S. Jackson, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom. Email: eelsj@leeds.ac.uk

Abstract

The diurnal temperature range (DTR) of surface air over land varies geographically and seasonally. The authors have investigated these variations using generalized additive models (GAMs), a nonlinear regression methodology. With DTR as the response variable, meteorological and land surface parameters were treated as explanatory variables. Regression curves related the deviation of DTR from its mean value to values of the meteorological and land surface variables. Cloud cover, soil moisture, distance inland, solar radiation, and elevation were combined as explanatory variables in an ensemble of 84 GAM models that used data grouped into seven vegetation types and 12 months. The ensemble explained 80% of the geographical and seasonal variation in DTR. Vegetation type and cloud cover exhibited the strongest relationships with DTR. Shortwave radiation, distance inland, and elevation were positively correlated with DTR, whereas cloud cover and soil moisture were negatively correlated. A separate analysis of the surface energy budget showed that changes in net longwave radiation represented the effects of solar and hydrological variation on DTR. It is found that vegetation and its associated climate is important for DTR variation in addition to the climatic influence of cloud cover, soil moisture, and solar radiation. It is also found that surface net longwave radiation is a powerful diagnostic of DTR variation, explaining over 95% of the seasonal variation of DTR in tropical regions.

Corresponding author address: Lawrence S. Jackson, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom. Email: eelsj@leeds.ac.uk

Save