• Andrews, D. G., J. R. Holton, and C. B. Leovy, 1987: Middle Atmosphere Dynamics. International Geophysics Series, Vol. 40, Academic Press, 489 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, M. P., and Coauthors, 2001: The quasi-biennial oscillation. Rev. Geophys., 39 , 179229.

  • Charlton, A. J., and L. M. Polvani, 2007: A new look at stratospheric sudden warming. Part I: Climatology and modeling benchmarks. J. Climate, 20 , 449469.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Charney, J. G., 1947: The dynamics of long waves in a baroclinic westerly current. J. Meteor., 4 , 135163.

  • Charney, J. G., and P. G. Drazin, 1961: Propagation of planetary-scale disturbances from the lower into the upper atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 66 , 83109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunkerton, T., C-P. F. Hsu, and M. E. McIntyre, 1981: Some Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostics for a model stratospheric warming. J. Atmos. Sci., 38 , 819843.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eady, E. T., 1949: Long waves and cyclone waves. Tellus, 1 , 3352.

  • Edmon, H. J., B. J. Hoskins, and M. E. McIntyre, 1980: Eliassen–Palm cross sections for the troposphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 37 , 26002616.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harnik, N., and E. Heifetz, 2007: Relating overreflection and wave geometry to the counterpropagating Rossby wave perspective: Toward a deeper mechanistic understanding of shear instability. J. Atmos. Sci., 64 , 22382261.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holton, J. R., and C. Mass, 1976: Stratospheric vacillation cycles. J. Atmos. Sci., 33 , 22182225.

  • Hoskins, B. J., M. E. McIntyre, and A. W. Robertson, 1985: On the use and significance of isentropic potential vorticity maps. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 111 , 877946.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jung, J-H., C. S. Konor, C. R. Mechoso, and A. Arakawa, 2001: A study of the stratospheric major warming and subsequent flow recovery during the winter of 1979 with an isentropic vertical coordinate model. J. Atmos. Sci., 58 , 26302649.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kanamitsu, M., W. Ebisuzaki, J. Woollen, S-K. Yang, J. J. Hnilo, M. Fiorino, and G. L. Potter, 2002: NCEP–DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83 , 16311643.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kodera, K., and Y. Kuroda, 2000: A mechanistic model study of slowly propagating coupled stratosphere–troposphere variability. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , 1236112370.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kodera, K., Y. Kuroda, and S. Pawson, 2000: Stratospheric sudden warmings and slowly propagating zonal-mean zonal wind anomalies. J. Geophys. Res., 105 , 1235112359.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuroda, Y., 2002: Relationship between the polar-night jet oscillation and the annular mode. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 , 1240. doi:10.1029/2001GL013933.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Labitzke, K., 1977: Interannual variability of the winter stratosphere in the Northern Hemisphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105 , 762770.

  • Labitzke, K., 1981: Stratospheric–mesospheric disturbances: A summary of observed characteristics. J. Geophys. Res., 86 , 96659678.

  • Labitzke, K., and B. Naujokat, 2000: The lower Arctic stratosphere since 1952. SPARC Newsletter, No. 15, Stratospheric Processes and Their Role in Climate Office, Toronto, ON, Canada. [Available online at http://www.atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca/SPARC/News15/15_Labitzke.html].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, Q., H-F. Graf, and M. A. Giorgetta, 2007: Stationary planetary wave propagation in Northern Hemisphere winter climatological analysis of the refractive index. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7 , 183200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Limpasuvan, V., D. W. J. Thompson, and D. L. Hartmann, 2004: The life cycle of the Northern Hemisphere sudden stratospheric warmings. J. Climate, 17 , 25842596.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Limpasuvan, V., D. L. Hartmann, D. W. J. Thompson, K. Jeev, and Y. L. Yung, 2005: Stratosphere–troposphere evolution during polar vortex intensification. J. Geophys. Res., 110 , D24101. doi:10.1029/2005JD006302.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lindzen, R. S., 1988: Instability of plane parallel shear-flow (toward a mechanistic picture of how it works). Pure Appl. Geophys., 126 , 103121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manney, G. L., and Coauthors, 2009: Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observations of dynamics and transport during the record-breaking 2009 Arctic stratospheric major warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36 , L12815. doi:10.1029/2009GL038586.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matsuno, T., 1970: Vertical propagation of stationary planetary waves in the winter Northern Hemisphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 27 , 871883.

  • Matsuno, T., 1971: A dynamical model of stratospheric warmings. J. Atmos. Sci., 28 , 14791494.

  • Newman, P. A., and J. E. Rosenfield, 1997: Stratospheric thermal damping times. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24 , 433436.

  • Onogi, K., and Coauthors, 2007: The JRA-25 Reanalysis. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 85 , 369432.

  • Pierce, R. B., W. T. Blackshear, T. D. Fairlie, W. L. Grose, and R. E. Turner, 1993: The interaction of radiative and dynamical processes during a simulated sudden stratospheric warming. J. Atmos. Sci., 50 , 38293851.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rayleigh, L., 1880: On the stability, or instability, of certain fluid motions. Proc. London Math. Soc., 9 , 5770.

  • Scherhag, R., 1952: Die explosionsartigen Stratosphärmungen des Spätwinters 1951–52. Ber. Dtsch. Wetterdienst, 6 , 5163.

  • Uppala, S. M., and Coauthors, 2005: The ERA-40 Re-Analysis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131 , 29613012.

  • Wang, L., and M. J. Alexander, 2009: Gravity wave activity during stratospheric sudden warmings in the 2007–2008 Northern Hemisphere winter. J. Geophys. Res., 114 , D18108. doi:10.1029/2009JD011867.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 0 0 0
PDF Downloads 0 0 0

Persistence of Easterly Wind during Major Stratospheric Sudden Warmings

View More View Less
  • 1 National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo, Japan
Restricted access

Abstract

This study examines why the persistence of easterly wind during major stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) varies from one SSW to another. From the 22 SSWs identified between 1979 and 2009, six long and six short SSWs of easterly wind periods longer than 20 days and shorter than 10 days, respectively, are chosen and their composites are compared. While the polar-night jet is stronger than the climatological jet before long SSWs, the preconditioning of the polar-night jet tends to occur before short SSWs. After the occurrence of SSWs, the easterly wind of short SSWs quickly returns to a westerly wind due to large positive Eliassen–Palm (E–P) flux divergence in the winter polar stratosphere. The easterly wind of long SSWs lasts for 20–40 days because the E–P flux divergence is small whether it is positive or negative. Such a difference in the E–P flux divergence originates from the difference in the upward E–P flux from the troposphere. On the other hand, the positive E–P flux divergence during short SSWs is not caused by the variation of upward E–P flux from the troposphere but could be due to the shear instability caused by the overreflection of zonal wavenumber 1 planetary waves at the critical surface. The difference in the persistence of easterly wind between long and short SSWs also has a large impact on the planetary wave activity in the winter stratosphere.

Corresponding author address: Yoshihiro Tomikawa, National Institute of Polar Research, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518, Japan. Email: tomikawa@nipr.ac.jp

Abstract

This study examines why the persistence of easterly wind during major stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) varies from one SSW to another. From the 22 SSWs identified between 1979 and 2009, six long and six short SSWs of easterly wind periods longer than 20 days and shorter than 10 days, respectively, are chosen and their composites are compared. While the polar-night jet is stronger than the climatological jet before long SSWs, the preconditioning of the polar-night jet tends to occur before short SSWs. After the occurrence of SSWs, the easterly wind of short SSWs quickly returns to a westerly wind due to large positive Eliassen–Palm (E–P) flux divergence in the winter polar stratosphere. The easterly wind of long SSWs lasts for 20–40 days because the E–P flux divergence is small whether it is positive or negative. Such a difference in the E–P flux divergence originates from the difference in the upward E–P flux from the troposphere. On the other hand, the positive E–P flux divergence during short SSWs is not caused by the variation of upward E–P flux from the troposphere but could be due to the shear instability caused by the overreflection of zonal wavenumber 1 planetary waves at the critical surface. The difference in the persistence of easterly wind between long and short SSWs also has a large impact on the planetary wave activity in the winter stratosphere.

Corresponding author address: Yoshihiro Tomikawa, National Institute of Polar Research, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518, Japan. Email: tomikawa@nipr.ac.jp

Save