• Adler, R. F., and Coauthors, 2003: The Version 2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979–present). J. Hydrometeor., 4 , 11471167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aebischer, U., and C. Schär, 1998: Low-level potential vorticity and cyclogenesis to the lee of the Alps. J. Atmos. Sci., 55 , 186207.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arritt, R. W., T. D. Rink, M. Segal, D. P. Todey, C. A. Clark, M. J. Mitchell, and K. M. Labas, 1997: The Great Plains low-level jet during the warm season of 1993. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 21762192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Augustine, J. A., and K. W. Howard, 1991: Mesoscale convective complexes over the United States during 1986 and 1987. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119 , 15751589.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Augustine, J. A., and F. Caracena, 1994: Lower-tropospheric precursors to nocturnal MCS development over the central United States. Wea. Forecasting, 9 , 116135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bonner, W. D., 1968: Climatology of the low level jet. Mon. Wea. Rev., 96 , 833850.

  • Byerle, L. A., and J. Paegle, 2003: Modulation of the Great Plains low-level jet and moisture transports by orography and large-scale circulations. J. Geophys. Res., 108 , 8611. doi:10.1029/2002JD003005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carbone, R. E., and J. D. Tuttle, 2008: Rainfall occurrence in the U.S. warm season: The diurnal cycle. J. Climate, 21 , 41324146.

  • Chen, G. T-J., and C. C. Yu, 1988: Study of low-level jet and extremely heavy rainfall over northern Taiwan in the mei-yu season. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116 , 884891.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chung, Y-S., 1977: On the orographic influence and lee cyclogenesis in the Andes, the Rockies, and the East Asian Mountains. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 26 , 112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dai, A., 2001: Global precipitation and thunderstorm frequencies. Part II: Diurnal variations. J. Climate, 14 , 11121128.

  • Dai, A., and K. E. Trenberth, 2004: The diurnal cycle and its depiction in the Community Climate System Model. J. Climate, 17 , 930951.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ebert, E. E., J. E. Janowiak, and C. Kidd, 2007: Comparison of near-real-time precipitation estimates from satellite observations and numerical models. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88 , 4764.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Findlater, J., 1969: A major low-level air current near the Indian Ocean during the northern summer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 95 , 362380.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Helfand, H. M., and S. D. Schubert, 1995: Climatology of the simulated Great Plains low-level jet and its contribution to the continental moisture budget of the United States. J. Climate, 8 , 784806.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hering, W. S., and T. R. Borden, 1962: Diurnal variations in the summer wind field over the central United States. J. Atmos. Sci., 19 , 8186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Higgins, R. W., Y. Yao, E. S. Yarosh, J. E. Janowiak, and K. C. Mo, 1997: Influence of the Great Plains low-level jet on summertime precipitation and moisture transport over the central United States. J. Climate, 10 , 481507.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Janowiak, J. E., V. E. Kousky, and R. J. Joyce, 2005: Diurnal cycle of precipitation determined from the CMORPH high spatial and temporal resolution global precipitation analyses. J. Geophys. Res., 110 , D23105. doi:10.1029/2005JD006156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, P. W., 1999: First- and second-order conservative remapping schemes for grids in spherical coordinates. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127 , 22042210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Joseph, P. V., and S. Sijikumar, 2004: Intraseasonal variability of the low-level jet stream of the Asian summer monsoon. J. Climate, 17 , 14491458.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Joyce, R. J., J. E. Janowiak, P. A. Arkin, and P. Xie, 2004: CMORPH: A method that produces global precipitation estimates from passive microwave and infrared data at high spatial and temporal resolution. J. Hydrometeor., 5 , 487503.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Knievel, J. C., D. A. Ahijevych, and K. W. Manning, 2004: Using temporal modes of rainfall to evaluate the performance of a numerical weather prediction model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132 , 29953009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, M-I., and Coauthors, 2007: An analysis of the warm-season diurnal cycle over the continental United States and northern Mexico in general circulation models. J. Hydrometeor., 8 , 344366.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin, Y., and K. E. Mitchell, 2005: The NCEP stage II/IV hourly precipitation analyses: Development and applications. Preprints, 19th Conf. on Hydrology, San Diego, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1.2. [Available online at http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/83847.pdf].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lindesay, J. A., and P. D. Tyson, 1990: Thermo-topographically induced boundary layer oscillations over the central Namib, southern Africa. Int. J. Climatol., 10 , 1990.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mann, H. B., and D. R. Whitney, 1947: On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other. Ann. Math. Stat., 18 , 5060.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marengo, J. A., W. R. Soares, C. Saulo, and M. Nicolini, 2004: Climatology of the low-level jet east of the Andes as derived from the NCEP–NCAR reanalyses: Characteristics and temporal variability. J. Climate, 17 , 22612280.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Means, L. L., 1952: On thunderstorm forecasting in the central United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 80 , 165189.

  • Miller, D., and J. M. Fritsch, 1991: Mesoscale convective complexes in the western Pacific region. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119 , 29782992.

  • Mitchell, M. J., R. W. Arritt, and K. Labas, 1995: A climatology of the warm season Great Plains low-level jet using wind profiler observations. Wea. Forecasting, 10 , 576591.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mo, K. C., and E. H. Berbery, 2004: Low-level jets and the summer precipitation regimes over North America. J. Geophys. Res., 109 , D06117. doi:10.1029/2003JD004106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nicolini, M., and A. C. Saulo, 2006: Modeled Chaco low-level jets and related precipitation patterns during the 1997–1998 warm season. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 94 , 129143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nogués-Paegle, J., and K. C. Mo, 1997: Alternating wet and dry conditions over South America during summer. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125 , 279291.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pitchford, K. L., and J. London, 1962: The low-level jet as related to nocturnal thunderstorms over midwest United States. J. Appl. Meteor., 1 , 4347.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pryor, S. C., J. A. Howe, and K. E. Kunkel, 2009: How spatially coherent and statistically robust are temporal changes in extreme precipitation in the contiguous USA? Int. J. Climatol., 29 , 3145.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rife, D. L., J. O. Pinto, A. J. Monaghan, C. A. Davis, and J. R. Hannon, 2010: Global distribution and characteristics of diurnally varying low-level jets. J. Climate, 23 , 50415064.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodgers, J. L., and W. A. Nicewander, 1988: Thirteen ways to look at the correlation coefficient. Amer. Stat., 42 , 5966.

  • Salio, P., M. Nicolini, and A. C. Saulo, 2002: Chaco low-level jet events characterization during the austral summer season. J. Geophys. Res., 107 , 4816. doi:10.1029/2001JD001315.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Salio, P., M. Nicolini, and E. J. Zipser, 2007: Mesoscale convective systems over southeastern South America and their relationship with the South American low-level jet. Mon. Wea. Rev., 135 , 12901309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, M. Marquis, K. Averyt, M. M. B. Tignor, H. L. Miller Jr., and Z. Chen, Eds. 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge University Press, 996 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Song, J., K. Liao, R. L. Coulter, and B. M. Lesht, 2005: Climatology of the low-level jet at the southern Great Plains atmospheric boundary layer experiments site. J. Appl. Meteor., 44 , 15931606.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stensrud, D. J., 1996: Importance of low-level jets to climate: A review. J. Climate, 9 , 16981711.

  • Trier, S. B., C. A. Davis, D. A. Ahijevych, M. L. Weisman, and G. H. Bryan, 2006: Mechanisms supporting long-lived episodes of propagating nocturnal convection within a 7-day WRF model simulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 63 , 24372461.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tuttle, J. D., and C. A. Davis, 2006: Corridors of warm season precipitation in the central United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 134 , 22972317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vera, C., and Coauthors, 2006: The South American Low-Level Jet Experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 87 , 6377.

  • Vernekar, A. D., B. P. Kirtman, and M. J. Fennessy, 2003: Low-level jets and their effects on the South American summer climate as simulated by the NCEP Eta model. J. Climate, 16 , 297311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallace, J., 1975: Diurnal variations in precipitation and thunderstorm frequency over the conterminous United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 103 , 406419.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weaver, S. J., and S. Nigam, 2008: Variability of the Great Plains low-level jet: Large-scale circulation context and hydroclimate impacts. J. Climate, 21 , 15321551.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whiteman, C. D., X. Bian, and S. Zhong, 1997: Low-level jet climatology from enhanced rawinsonde observations at a site in the southern Great Plains. J. Appl. Meteor., 36 , 13631376.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilks, D. S., 2006: Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences. 2nd ed. International Geophysical Series, Vol. 91, Academic Press, 627 pp.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yin, S., D. Chen, and Y. Xie, 2009: Diurnal variations of precipitation during the warm season over China. Int. J. Climatol., 29 , 11541170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, C., P. Woodworth, and G. Guojun, 2006: The seasonal cycle in the lower troposphere over West Africa from sounding observations. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 132 , 25592582.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, L., R. E. Dickinson, A. Dai, and P. Dirmeyer, 2010: Detection and attribution of anthropogenic forcing to diurnal temperature range changes from 1950-1999: Comparing multi-model simulations with observations. Climate Dyn., doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0644-2, in press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zunckel, M., G. Held, R. A. Preston-Whyte, and A. Joubert, 1996: Low-level wind maxima and the transport of pyrogenic products over southern Africa. J. Geophys. Res., 101 , 2374523755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 9 9 9
PDF Downloads 7 7 7

Global Precipitation Extremes Associated with Diurnally Varying Low-Level Jets

View More View Less
  • 1 National Center for Atmospheric Research,* Boulder, Colorado
  • | 2 Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, Virginia
Restricted access

Abstract

Extreme rainfall events have important societal impacts: for example, by causing flooding, replenishing reservoirs, and affecting agricultural yields. Previous literature has documented linkages between rainfall extremes and nocturnal low-level jets (NLLJs) over the Great Plains of North America and the La Plata River basin of South America. In this study, the authors utilize a 21-yr, hourly global 40-km reanalysis based on the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) to examine whether NLLJ–rainfall linkages are common elsewhere on the earth. The reanalysis is uniquely suited for the task because of its comparatively high spatial and temporal resolution and because a companion paper demonstrated that it realistically simulates the vertical, horizontal, and diurnal structure of the winds in well-known NLLJ regions. The companion paper employed the reanalysis to identify and describe numerous NLLJs across the planet, including several previously unknown NLLJs.

The authors demonstrate here that the reanalysis reasonably simulates the diurnal cycle, extremes, and spatial structure of rainfall globally compared to satellite-based precipitation datasets and therefore that it is suitable for examining NLLJ–rainfall linkages. A statistical approach is then introduced to categorize nocturnal precipitation extremes as a function of the NLLJ magnitude, wind direction, and wind frequency for January and July. Statistically significant relationships between NLLJs and nocturnal precipitation extremes exist in at least 10 widely disparate regions around the world, some of which are well known and others that have been undocumented until now. The regions include the U.S. Great Plains, Tibet, northwest China, India, Southeast Asia, southeast China, Argentina, Namibia, Botswana, and Ethiopia. Recent studies have recorded widespread changes in the amplitudes of near-surface diurnal heating cycles that in turn play key roles in driving NLLJs. It will thus be important for future work to address how rainfall extremes may be impacted if trends in diurnal cycles cause the position, magnitude, and frequency of NLLJs to change.

Corresponding author address: Andrew J. Monaghan, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000. Email: monaghan@ucar.edu

Abstract

Extreme rainfall events have important societal impacts: for example, by causing flooding, replenishing reservoirs, and affecting agricultural yields. Previous literature has documented linkages between rainfall extremes and nocturnal low-level jets (NLLJs) over the Great Plains of North America and the La Plata River basin of South America. In this study, the authors utilize a 21-yr, hourly global 40-km reanalysis based on the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) to examine whether NLLJ–rainfall linkages are common elsewhere on the earth. The reanalysis is uniquely suited for the task because of its comparatively high spatial and temporal resolution and because a companion paper demonstrated that it realistically simulates the vertical, horizontal, and diurnal structure of the winds in well-known NLLJ regions. The companion paper employed the reanalysis to identify and describe numerous NLLJs across the planet, including several previously unknown NLLJs.

The authors demonstrate here that the reanalysis reasonably simulates the diurnal cycle, extremes, and spatial structure of rainfall globally compared to satellite-based precipitation datasets and therefore that it is suitable for examining NLLJ–rainfall linkages. A statistical approach is then introduced to categorize nocturnal precipitation extremes as a function of the NLLJ magnitude, wind direction, and wind frequency for January and July. Statistically significant relationships between NLLJs and nocturnal precipitation extremes exist in at least 10 widely disparate regions around the world, some of which are well known and others that have been undocumented until now. The regions include the U.S. Great Plains, Tibet, northwest China, India, Southeast Asia, southeast China, Argentina, Namibia, Botswana, and Ethiopia. Recent studies have recorded widespread changes in the amplitudes of near-surface diurnal heating cycles that in turn play key roles in driving NLLJs. It will thus be important for future work to address how rainfall extremes may be impacted if trends in diurnal cycles cause the position, magnitude, and frequency of NLLJs to change.

Corresponding author address: Andrew J. Monaghan, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000. Email: monaghan@ucar.edu

Save