Impacts of Different Types of El Niño on the East Asian Climate: Focus on ENSO Cycles

Yuan Yuan National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing, China

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Song Yang NOAA Climate Prediction Center, Camp Springs, Maryland

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Abstract

Using multiple datasets and a partial correlation method, the authors analyze the different impacts of eastern Pacific (EP) and central Pacific (CP) El Niño on East Asian climate, focusing on the features from El Niño developing summer to El Niño decaying summer. Unlike the positive–negative–positive (+/−/+) anomalous precipitation pattern over East Asia and the equatorial Pacific during EP El Niño, an anomalous −/+/− rainfall pattern appears during CP El Niño. The anomalous dry conditions over southeastern China and the northwestern Pacific during CP El Niño seem to result from the anomalous low-level anticyclone over southern China and the South China Sea, which is located more westward than the Philippine Sea anticyclone during EP El Niño. The continuous anomalous sinking motion over southeastern China, as part of the anomalous Walker circulation associated with CP El Niño, also contributes to these dry conditions.

During the developing summer, the impact of CP El Niño on East Asian climate is more significant than the influence of EP El Niño. During the decaying summer, however, EP El Niño exerts a stronger influence on East Asia, probably due to the long-lasting anomalous warming over the tropical Indian Ocean accompanying EP El Niño.

Temperatures over portions of East Asia and the northwestern Pacific tend to be above normal during EP El Niño but below normal from the developing autumn to the next spring during CP El Niño. A possible reason is the weakened (enhanced) East Asian winter monsoon related to EP (CP) El Niño.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Song Yang, NOAA Climate Prediction Center, 5200 Auth Road, Camp Springs, MD 20746. E-mail: song.yang@noaa.gov

Abstract

Using multiple datasets and a partial correlation method, the authors analyze the different impacts of eastern Pacific (EP) and central Pacific (CP) El Niño on East Asian climate, focusing on the features from El Niño developing summer to El Niño decaying summer. Unlike the positive–negative–positive (+/−/+) anomalous precipitation pattern over East Asia and the equatorial Pacific during EP El Niño, an anomalous −/+/− rainfall pattern appears during CP El Niño. The anomalous dry conditions over southeastern China and the northwestern Pacific during CP El Niño seem to result from the anomalous low-level anticyclone over southern China and the South China Sea, which is located more westward than the Philippine Sea anticyclone during EP El Niño. The continuous anomalous sinking motion over southeastern China, as part of the anomalous Walker circulation associated with CP El Niño, also contributes to these dry conditions.

During the developing summer, the impact of CP El Niño on East Asian climate is more significant than the influence of EP El Niño. During the decaying summer, however, EP El Niño exerts a stronger influence on East Asia, probably due to the long-lasting anomalous warming over the tropical Indian Ocean accompanying EP El Niño.

Temperatures over portions of East Asia and the northwestern Pacific tend to be above normal during EP El Niño but below normal from the developing autumn to the next spring during CP El Niño. A possible reason is the weakened (enhanced) East Asian winter monsoon related to EP (CP) El Niño.

Corresponding author address: Dr. Song Yang, NOAA Climate Prediction Center, 5200 Auth Road, Camp Springs, MD 20746. E-mail: song.yang@noaa.gov
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