• Baldwin, M. P., , and T. J. Dunkerton, 1999: Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 30 93730 946.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bamzai, A. S., 2003: Relationship between snow cover variability and Arctic Oscillation index on a hierarchy of time scales. Int. J. Climatol., 23, 131142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bersch, M., 2002: North Atlantic Oscillation–induced changes of the upper layer circulation in the northern North Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 3156, doi:10.1029/2001JC000901.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boer, G. J., , S. Fourest, , and B. Yu, 2001: The signature of the annular modes in the moisture budget. J. Climate, 14, 36553665.

  • Cai, M., , and R.-C. Ren, 2007: Meridional and downward propagation of atmospheric circulation anomalies. Part I: Northern Hemisphere cold season variability. J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 18801901.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cai, M., , and J.-H. Lu, 2009: A new framework for isolating individual feedback processes in coupled general circulation climate models. Part II: Method demonstrations and comparisons. Climate Dyn., 32, 887900, doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0424-4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cellitti, M. P., , J. E. Walsh, , R. M. Rauber, , and D. H. Portis, 2006: Extreme cold air outbreaks over the United States, the polar vortex, and the large-scale circulation. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D02114, doi:10.1029/2005JD006273.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, W., , and K. Wei, 2009: Interannual variability of the winter stratospheric polar vortex in the Northern Hemisphere and their relations to QBO and ENSO. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 26, 855863, doi:10.1007/s00376-009-8168-6.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coughlin, K., , and K. K. Tung, 2001: QBO signal found at the extratropical surface through northern annular modes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 45634566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Creilson, J. K., , J. Fishman, , and A. E. Wozniak, 2005: Arctic Oscillation–induced variability in satellite-derived tropospheric ozone. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L14822, doi:10.1029/2005GL023016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dee, D. P., and Coauthors, 2011: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553597.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Delworth, T. L., , and K. W. Dixon, 2000: Implications of the recent trend in the Arctic/North Atlantic Oscillation for the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. J. Climate, 13, 37213727.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deng, Y., , T.-W. Park, , and M. Cai, 2012: Process-based decomposition of the global surface temperature response to El Niño in boreal winter. J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 17061712.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feldstein, S. B., 2000: The timescale, power spectra, and climate noise properties of teleconnection patterns. J. Climate, 13, 44304440.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feldstein, S. B., 2002: The recent trend and variance increase of the annular mode. J. Climate, 15, 8894.

  • Fu, Q., , and K. N. Liou, 1992: On the correlated k-distribution method for radiative transfer in nonhomogeneous atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 49, 21392156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fu, Q., , and K. N. Liou, 1993: Parameterization of the radiative properties of cirrus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 20082025.

  • Gillett, N. P., , G. C. Hegerl, , M. R. Allen, , and P. A. Stott, 2000: Implications of changes in the Northern Hemisphere circulation for the detection of anthropogenic climate change. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 993996.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gong, D. Y., , S. W. Wang, , and J. H. Zhu, 2001: East Asian winter monsoon and Arctic Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 20732076.

  • Groves, D. G., , and J. A. Francis, 2002: Variability of the Arctic atmospheric moisture budget from TOVS satellite data. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4785, doi:10.1029/2002JD002285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Higgins, R. W., , A. Leetmaa, , and V. E. Kousky, 2002: Relationships between climate variability and winter temperature extremes in the United States. J. Climate, 15, 15551572.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holton, J. R., , and C. Mass, 1976: Stratospheric vacillation cycles. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 22182225.

  • Lee, S., , and S. Feldstein, 1996: Mechanism of zonal index evolution in a two-layer model. J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 22322246.

  • Lorenz, D. J., , and D. L. Hartmann, 2001: Eddy–zonal flow feedback in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 33123327.

  • Lu, J.-H., , and M. Cai, 2009: A new framework for isolating individual feedback processes in coupled general circulation climate models. Part I: Formulation. Climate Dyn., 32, 873885, doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0425-3.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller, A. J., , S. Zhou, , and S. K. Yang, 2003: Relationship of the Arctic and Antarctic Oscillations to the outgoing longwave radiation. J. Climate, 16, 15831592.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, S., , and C. B. Leovy, 2000: Winter North Atlantic low cloud anomalies associated with the Northern Hemisphere annular mode. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 33573360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, T.-W., , C.-H. Ho, , and S. Yang, 2011: Relationship between the Arctic Oscillation and cold surges over East Asia. J. Climate, 24, 6883.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Plumb, R. A., , and R. C. Bell, 1982: A model of the quasi-biennial oscillation on an equatorial beta-plane. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 108, 335352.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rigor, I. G., , J. M. Wallace, , and R. L. Colony, 2002: Response of sea ice to the Arctic Oscillation. J. Climate, 15, 26482663.

  • Robinson, W. A., 1991: The dynamics of zonal index in a simple model of the atmosphere. Tellus, 43A, 295305.

  • Robinson, W. A., 1994: Eddy feedbacks on the zonal index and eddy–zonal flow interactions induced by zonal flow transience. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 25532562.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, W. A., 1996: Does eddy feedback sustain variability in the zonal index? J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 35563569.

  • Rodwell, M. J., , D. P. Rowell, , and C. K. Folland, 1999: Oceanic forcing of the wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation and European climate. Nature, 398, 320323.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stroeve, J. C., , J. Maslanik, , M. C. Serreze, , I. Rigor, , W. Meier, , and C. Fowler, 2011: Sea ice response to an extreme negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation during winter 2009/2010. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L02502, doi:10.1029/2010GL045662.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 12971300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 2000: Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate, 13, 10001016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, D. W. J., , and J. M. Wallace, 2001: Regional climate impacts of the Northern Hemisphere annular mode. Science, 293, 8589.

  • Thompson, D. W. J., , and D. J. Lorenz, 2004: The signature of the annular modes in the tropical troposphere. J. Climate, 17, 43304342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, D. W. J., , S. Lee, , and M. P. Baldwin, 2003: Atmospheric processes governing the Northern Hemisphere annular mode/North Atlantic Oscillation. The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact, Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 134, Amer. Geophys. Union, 81–112.

  • Trigo, R. M., , T. J. Osborn, , and J. M. Corte-Real, 2002: The North Atlantic Oscillation influence on Europe: Climate impacts and associated physical mechanisms. Climate Res., 20, 917.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Uppala, S. M., , D. Dee, , S. Kobayashi, , P. Berrisford, , and A. Simmons, 2008: Towards a climate data-assimilation system: Status update of ERA–Interim. ECMWF Newletter, No. 115, ECMWF, Reading, United Kingdom, 12–18.

  • Wang, L., , and W. Chen, 2010: Downward Arctic Oscillation signal associated with moderate weak stratospheric polar vortex and the cold December 2009. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L09707, doi:10.1029/2010GL042659.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, A. M., , W. W. Hsieh, , A. Shabbar, , G. J. Boer, , and F. W. Zwiers, 2006: The nonlinear association between the Arctic Oscillation and North American winter climate. Climate Dyn., 26, 865879.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, J.-Y., , and D. L. Hartmann, 1993: Zonal flow vacillation and eddy forcing in a simple GCM of the atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 32443259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 35 35 7
PDF Downloads 22 22 3

Radiative and Dynamical Forcing of the Surface and Atmospheric Temperature Anomalies Associated with the Northern Annular Mode

View More View Less
  • 1 School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia
  • | 2 Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

On the basis of the total energy balance within an atmosphere–surface column, an attribution analysis is conducted for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) atmospheric and surface temperature response to the northern annular mode (NAM) in boreal winter. The local temperature anomaly in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) is decomposed into partial temperature anomalies because of changes in atmospheric dynamics, water vapor, clouds, ozone, surface albedo, and surface dynamics with the coupled atmosphere–surface climate feedback–response analysis method (CFRAM). Large-scale ascent/descent as part of the NAM-related mean meridional circulation anomaly adiabatically drives the main portion of the observed zonally averaged atmospheric temperature response, particularly the tropospheric cooling/warming over northern extratropics. Contributions from diabatic processes are generally small but could be locally important, especially at lower latitudes where radiatively active substances such as clouds and water vapor are more abundant. For example, in the tropical upper troposphere and stratosphere, both cloud and ozone forcings are critical in leading to the observed NAM-related temperature anomalies. Radiative forcing due to changes in water vapor acts as the main driver of the surface warming of southern North America during a positive phase of NAM, with atmospheric dynamics providing additional warming. In the negative phase of NAM, surface albedo change drives the surface cooling of southern North America, with atmospheric dynamics providing additional cooling. Over the subpolar North Atlantic and northern Eurasia, atmospheric dynamical processes again become the largest contributor to the NAM-related surface temperature anomalies, although changes in water vapor and clouds also contribute positively to the observed surface temperature anomalies while change in surface dynamics contributes negatively to the observed temperature anomalies.

Corresponding author address: Yi Deng, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332-0340. E-mail: yi.deng@eas.gatech.edu

Abstract

On the basis of the total energy balance within an atmosphere–surface column, an attribution analysis is conducted for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) atmospheric and surface temperature response to the northern annular mode (NAM) in boreal winter. The local temperature anomaly in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) is decomposed into partial temperature anomalies because of changes in atmospheric dynamics, water vapor, clouds, ozone, surface albedo, and surface dynamics with the coupled atmosphere–surface climate feedback–response analysis method (CFRAM). Large-scale ascent/descent as part of the NAM-related mean meridional circulation anomaly adiabatically drives the main portion of the observed zonally averaged atmospheric temperature response, particularly the tropospheric cooling/warming over northern extratropics. Contributions from diabatic processes are generally small but could be locally important, especially at lower latitudes where radiatively active substances such as clouds and water vapor are more abundant. For example, in the tropical upper troposphere and stratosphere, both cloud and ozone forcings are critical in leading to the observed NAM-related temperature anomalies. Radiative forcing due to changes in water vapor acts as the main driver of the surface warming of southern North America during a positive phase of NAM, with atmospheric dynamics providing additional warming. In the negative phase of NAM, surface albedo change drives the surface cooling of southern North America, with atmospheric dynamics providing additional cooling. Over the subpolar North Atlantic and northern Eurasia, atmospheric dynamical processes again become the largest contributor to the NAM-related surface temperature anomalies, although changes in water vapor and clouds also contribute positively to the observed surface temperature anomalies while change in surface dynamics contributes negatively to the observed temperature anomalies.

Corresponding author address: Yi Deng, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, 311 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332-0340. E-mail: yi.deng@eas.gatech.edu
Save