Heavy Rainfall Induced by Tropical Cyclones across Northern Taiwan and Associated Intraseasonal Oscillation Modulation

Jau-Ming Chen Institute of Maritime Information and Technology, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

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Pei-Hua Tan Department of History and Geography, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan

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Ching-Feng Shih Marine Meteorology Center, Central Weather Bureau, Taipei, Taiwan

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Abstract

Tropical cyclones (TCs) moving northwestward/westward across northern Taiwan are defined to have a type-2 track. This study aims to analyze heavy rainfall associated with type-2 TCs in Taiwan, focusing on the modulation processes of the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO). During 1958–2011, 21 summer type-2 TCs are separated into three rainfall types: strong, moderate, and weak. For the strong rainfall type, both 30–60-day and 10–24-day ISOs propagate northwestward across Taiwan. During landfall and the ensuing two days, both ISOs exhibit a cyclonic anomaly centering northwest of Taiwan that causes anomalous westerly flows (or enhance seasonal southwesterly flows) from the South China Sea (SCS) onto Taiwan. Persistent moisture supply and strong moisture convergence result in prolonged heavy rainfall on the windward side over western Taiwan. TCs with weak rainfall are accompanied by a northward-propagating 30–60-day ISO from the tropical western Pacific toward Japan and a westward-propagating 10–24-day ISO along 20°N latitude. During the landfall stage both ISOs have a cyclonic anomaly with its center south of Taiwan. Major anomalous westerly flows are displaced southward across the central SCS, leading to a weak moisture supply and rainfall in Taiwan. The moderate rainfall type features a 30–60-day (10–24 day) ISO resembling that of the weak (strong) rainfall type. The amount of rainfall thus ranges between the strong and weak rainfall types. Major processes regulating the rainfall of type-2 TCs relate to the intensity of the moisture supply associated with anomalous westerly flows from the SCS onto Taiwan, which is jointly modulated by 30–60-day and 10–24-day ISOs.

Corresponding author address: Jau-Ming Chen, Institute of Maritime Information and Technology, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 482, Jhongjhou 3rd Rd., Kaohsiung, 805, Taiwan. E-mail: cjming@mail.nkmu.edu.tw

Abstract

Tropical cyclones (TCs) moving northwestward/westward across northern Taiwan are defined to have a type-2 track. This study aims to analyze heavy rainfall associated with type-2 TCs in Taiwan, focusing on the modulation processes of the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO). During 1958–2011, 21 summer type-2 TCs are separated into three rainfall types: strong, moderate, and weak. For the strong rainfall type, both 30–60-day and 10–24-day ISOs propagate northwestward across Taiwan. During landfall and the ensuing two days, both ISOs exhibit a cyclonic anomaly centering northwest of Taiwan that causes anomalous westerly flows (or enhance seasonal southwesterly flows) from the South China Sea (SCS) onto Taiwan. Persistent moisture supply and strong moisture convergence result in prolonged heavy rainfall on the windward side over western Taiwan. TCs with weak rainfall are accompanied by a northward-propagating 30–60-day ISO from the tropical western Pacific toward Japan and a westward-propagating 10–24-day ISO along 20°N latitude. During the landfall stage both ISOs have a cyclonic anomaly with its center south of Taiwan. Major anomalous westerly flows are displaced southward across the central SCS, leading to a weak moisture supply and rainfall in Taiwan. The moderate rainfall type features a 30–60-day (10–24 day) ISO resembling that of the weak (strong) rainfall type. The amount of rainfall thus ranges between the strong and weak rainfall types. Major processes regulating the rainfall of type-2 TCs relate to the intensity of the moisture supply associated with anomalous westerly flows from the SCS onto Taiwan, which is jointly modulated by 30–60-day and 10–24-day ISOs.

Corresponding author address: Jau-Ming Chen, Institute of Maritime Information and Technology, National Kaohsiung Marine University, No. 482, Jhongjhou 3rd Rd., Kaohsiung, 805, Taiwan. E-mail: cjming@mail.nkmu.edu.tw
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