• Adler, R. F., and Coauthors, 2003: The version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–present). J. Hydrometeor., 4, 11471167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blackmon, M. L., Y.-H. Lee, J. M. Wallace, and H.-H. Hsu, 1984: Time variation of 500 mb height fluctuations with long, intermediate and short time scales as deduced from lag-correlation statistics. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 981991.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Branstator, G., 1983: Horizontal energy propagation in a barotropic atmosphere with meridional and zonal structure. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 16891708.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Branstator, G., 1985: Analysis of general circulation model sea-surface temperature anomaly simulations using a linear model. Part II: Eigenanalysis. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 22422254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brönnimann, S., 2007: Impact of El Niño–Southern Oscillation on European climate. Rev. Geophys.,45, RG3003, doi:10.1029/2006RG000199.

  • Dong, B. W., R. T. Sutton, S. P. Jewson, A. O’Neill, and J. M. Slingo, 2000: Predictable winter climate in the North Atlantic sector during the 1997–1999 ENSO cycle. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 985988.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feddersen, H., 2003: Predictability of seasonal precipitation in the Nordic region. Tellus, 55A, 385400.

  • Greatbatch, R. J., and T. Jung, 2007: Local versus tropical diabatic heating and the winter North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 20, 20582075.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greatbatch, R. J., J. Lu, and K. A. Peterson, 2004: Nonstationary impact of ENSO on Euro-Atlantic winter climate. Geophys. Res. Lett.,31, L02208, doi:10.1029/2003GL018542.

  • Grötzner, A., M. Latif, and D. Dommenget, 2000: Atmospheric response to sea surface temperature anomalies during El Niño 1997/98 as simulated by ECHAM4. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126, 21752198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Held, I. M., S. W. Lyons, and S. Nigam, 1989: Transients and the extratropical response to El Niño. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 163174.

  • Held, I. M., M.-F. Ting, and H. L. Wang, 2002: Northern winter stationary waves: Theory and modeling. J. Climate, 15, 21252144.

  • Hoerling, M. P., and M.-F. Ting, 1994: Organization of extratropical transients during El Niño. J. Climate, 7, 745766.

  • Hoskins, B. J., and K. Karoly, 1981: The steady response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 11791196.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hurrell, J. W., J. J. Hack, D. Shea, J. M. Caron, and J. Rosinski, 2008: A new sea surface temperature and sea ice boundary dataset for the Community Atmosphere Model. J. Climate, 21, 51455153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ineson, S., and A. Scaife, 2009: The role of the stratosphere in the European climate response to El Niño. Nat. Geosci., 2, 3236.

  • Janowiak, J. E., and P. Xie, 1999: CAMS–OPI: A global satellite–rain gauge merged product for real-time precipitation monitoring applications. J. Climate, 12, 33353342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437471.

  • Li, Z., and T. R. Nathan, 1997: Effects of low-frequency tropical forcing on intraseasonal tropical-extratropical interactions. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 332346.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mathieu, P.-P., R. T. Sutton, B. Dong, and M. Collins, 2004: Predictability of winter climate over the North Atlantic European region during ENSO events. J. Climate, 17, 19531974.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Merkel, U., and M. Latif, 2002: A high resolution AGCM study of the El Niño impact on the North Atlantic/European sector. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 (9), doi:10.1029/2001GL013726.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Neale, R. B., and Coauthors, 2010: Description of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CAM 4.0). NCAR Tech. Note TN-485+STR, 224 pp.

  • Park, S., 2004: Remote ENSO influence on Mediterranean sky conditions during late summer and autumn: Evidence for a slowly evolving atmospheric bridge. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 130, 24092422.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pohlmann, H., and M. Latif, 2005: Atlantic versus Indo-Pacific influence on Atlantic-European climate. Geophys. Res. Lett.,32, L05707, doi:10.1029/2004GL021316.

  • Sardeshmukh, P. D., and B. J. Hoskins, 1988: The generation of global rotational flow by steady idealized tropical divergence. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 12281251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shaman, J., and E. Tziperman, 2005: The effect of ENSO on Tibetan Plateau snow depth: A stationary wave teleconnection mechanism and implications for the South Asian monsoons. J. Climate, 18, 20672079.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shaman, J., and E. Tziperman, 2007: The summertime ENSO–North African–Asian jet teleconnection and implications for the Indian monsoons. Geophys. Res. Lett.,34, L11702, doi:10.1029/2006GL029143.

  • Shaman, J., and E. Tziperman, 2011: An atmospheric teleconnection linking ENSO and southwestern European precipitation. J. Climate, 24, 124139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shaman, J., S. K. Esbensen, and E. D. Maloney, 2009: The dynamics of the ENSO–Atlantic hurricane teleconnection: ENSO-related changes to the North African–Asian jet affect Atlantic basin tropical cyclogenesis. J. Climate, 22, 24582482.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simmons, A. J., J. M. Wallace, and G. W. Branstator, 1983: Barotropic wave propagation and instability, and atmospheric teleconnection patterns. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 13631392.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ting, M.-F., and I. M. Held, 1990: The stationary wave response to a tropical SST anomaly in an idealized GCM. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 25462566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Toniazzo, T., and A. A. Scaife, 2006: The influence of ENSO on winter North Atlantic climate. Geophys. Res. Lett.,33, L24704, doi:10.1029/2006GL027881.

  • Xie, P. P., and P. A. Arkin, 1997: Global precipitation: A 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 25392558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zanchettin, D., S. W. Franks, P. Traverso, and M. Tomasino, 2008: On ENSO impacts on European wintertime rainfalls and their modulation by the NAO and the Pacific multi-decadal variability described through the PDO index. Int. J. Climatol., 28, 9951006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 123 64 20
PDF Downloads 97 56 17

The Seasonal Effects of ENSO on Atmospheric Conditions Associated with European Precipitation: Model Simulations of Seasonal Teleconnections

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York
Restricted access

Abstract

The seasonal upper-tropospheric teleconnection between ENSO and the North Atlantic/European sector is explored through a series of model experiments. A barotropic vorticity equation model is linearized about climatological conditions for each season of the year, and divergence forcing is applied over the equatorial Pacific to mimic El Niño–related convective activity. During boreal fall, winter, and spring, this forcing similarly excites a northeastward-propagating stationary barotropic Rossby wave train that extends across the North Atlantic to the European coast. Strong anomalies develop over the British Isles in the vicinity of the North Atlantic jet exit. Solutions during boreal summer produce no clear wave train; however, evidence exists for a North Atlantic response because of both eastward- and westward-propagating signals. These direct responses over the Atlantic and Europe are qualitatively similar to observed ENSO-associated anomalies during boreal spring and fall, but differ structurally during summer and winter. Further experiments with the vorticity equation model using full Rossby wave source forcing, which included vorticity advection, increase the amplitude of the response over Europe during some seasons; however, structural differences persist.

Finally, experiments with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), version 4, reveal that the basic northeastward-propagating response is modulated by downstream feedbacks. These changes are most profound during boreal winter and engender an arching wave train pattern that, matching observations, reflects off the jet over North America, propagates southeastward over the North Atlantic, and fails to reach the European coast. Overall, the simulations with CAM correctly depict observed seasonal changes in the magnitude of the ENSO–North Atlantic/European teleconnection by producing a strong fall and winter response but a weaker spring and summer response. The CAM experiments also indicate that the seasonal response is not dependent on antecedent conditions; however, CAM simulations fail to project the upper-tropospheric anomalies appropriately to the lower troposphere.

Corresponding author address: Jeffrey Shaman, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 West 168th Street, Rosenfield Building, Room 1104C, New York, NY 10032. E-mail: jls106@columbia.edu

Abstract

The seasonal upper-tropospheric teleconnection between ENSO and the North Atlantic/European sector is explored through a series of model experiments. A barotropic vorticity equation model is linearized about climatological conditions for each season of the year, and divergence forcing is applied over the equatorial Pacific to mimic El Niño–related convective activity. During boreal fall, winter, and spring, this forcing similarly excites a northeastward-propagating stationary barotropic Rossby wave train that extends across the North Atlantic to the European coast. Strong anomalies develop over the British Isles in the vicinity of the North Atlantic jet exit. Solutions during boreal summer produce no clear wave train; however, evidence exists for a North Atlantic response because of both eastward- and westward-propagating signals. These direct responses over the Atlantic and Europe are qualitatively similar to observed ENSO-associated anomalies during boreal spring and fall, but differ structurally during summer and winter. Further experiments with the vorticity equation model using full Rossby wave source forcing, which included vorticity advection, increase the amplitude of the response over Europe during some seasons; however, structural differences persist.

Finally, experiments with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), version 4, reveal that the basic northeastward-propagating response is modulated by downstream feedbacks. These changes are most profound during boreal winter and engender an arching wave train pattern that, matching observations, reflects off the jet over North America, propagates southeastward over the North Atlantic, and fails to reach the European coast. Overall, the simulations with CAM correctly depict observed seasonal changes in the magnitude of the ENSO–North Atlantic/European teleconnection by producing a strong fall and winter response but a weaker spring and summer response. The CAM experiments also indicate that the seasonal response is not dependent on antecedent conditions; however, CAM simulations fail to project the upper-tropospheric anomalies appropriately to the lower troposphere.

Corresponding author address: Jeffrey Shaman, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 West 168th Street, Rosenfield Building, Room 1104C, New York, NY 10032. E-mail: jls106@columbia.edu
Save