• Bitz, C. M., , M. M. Holland, , E. C. Hunke, , and R. E. Moritz, 2005: Maintenance of the sea-ice edge. J. Climate, 18, 29032921, doi:10.1175/JCLI3428.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cavalieri, D. J., , T. Markus, , and J. C. Comiso, 2014: AMSR-E/Aqua daily L3 12.5 km brightness temperature, sea ice concentration, & snow depth polar grids, version 3. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center, accessed 20 February 2015, doi:10.5067/AMSR-E/AE_SI12.003.

  • Holland, M. M., , M. C. Serreze, , and J. Stroeve, 2010: The sea ice mass budget of the Arctic and its future change as simulated by coupled climate models. Climate Dyn., 34, 185200, doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0493-4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holland, P. R., 2014: The seasonality of Antarctic sea ice trends. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 42304237, doi:10.1002/2014GL060172.

  • Holland, P. R., , and R. Kwok, 2012: Wind-driven trends in Antarctic sea-ice drift. Nat. Geosci., 5, 872875, doi:10.1038/ngeo1627.

  • Holland, P. R., , N. Bruneau, , C. Enright, , N. T. Kurtz, , M. Losch, , and R. Kwok, 2014: Modeled trends in Antarctic sea ice thickness. J. Climate, 27, 37843801, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00301.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ivanova, N., and Coauthors, 2015: Inter-comparison and evaluation of sea ice algorithms: Towards further identification of challenges and optimal approach using passive microwave observations. Cryosphere, 9, 17971817, doi:10.5194/tc-9-1797-2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kimura, N., , and M. Wakatsuchi, 2011: Large-scale processes governing the seasonal variability of the Antarctic sea ice. Tellus, 63A, 828840, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0870.2011.00526.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kimura, N., , A. Nishimura, , Y. Tanaka, , and H. Yamaguchi, 2013: Influence of winter sea-ice motion on summer ice cover in the Arctic. Polar Res., 32, 20193, doi:10.3402/polar.v32i0.20193.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kwok, R., 2008: Summer sea ice motion from the 18 GHz channel of AMSR-E and the exchange of sea ice between the Pacific and Atlantic sectors. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L03504, doi:10.1029/2007GL032692.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lindsay, R. W., , and J. Zhang, 2005: The thinning of Arctic sea ice, 1988–2003: Have we passed a tipping point? J. Climate, 18, 48794894, doi:10.1175/JCLI3587.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lindsay, R. W., , J. Zhang, , A. Schweiger, , M. Steele, , and H. Stern, 2009: Arctic sea ice retreat in 2007 follows thinning trend. J. Climate, 22, 165176, doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2521.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martinson, D. G., , and R. A. Iannuzzi, 1998: Antarctic ocean–ice interaction: Implications from ocean bulk property distributions in the Weddell Gyre. Antarctic Sea Ice: Physical Processes, Interactions, and Variability, M. O. Jeffries, Ed., Amer. Geophys. Union, 243–271.

  • Massonnet, F., , P. Mathiot, , T. Fichefet, , H. Goosse, , C. K. Beatty, , M. Vancoppenolle, , and T. Lavergne, 2013: A model reconstruction of the Antarctic sea ice thickness and volume changes over 1980–2008 using data assimilation. Ocean Modell., 64, 6775, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.01.003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parkinson, C. L., 2014: Global sea ice coverage from satellite data: Annual cycle and 35-yr trends. J. Climate, 27, 93779382, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00605.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schweiger, A., , R. Lindsay, , J. L. Zhang, , M. Steele, , H. Stern, , and R. Kwok, 2011: Uncertainty in modeled Arctic sea ice volume. J. Geophys. Res., 116, C00D06, doi:10.1029/2011JC007084.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stroeve, J. C., , V. Kattsov, , A. Barrett, , M. Serreze, , T. Pavlova, , M. Holland, , and W. N. Meier, 2012: Trends in Arctic sea ice extent from CMIP5, CMIP3, and observations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L16502, doi:10.1029/2012GL052676.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sumata, H., , R. Gerdes, , F. Kauker, , and M. Karcher, 2015: Empirical error functions for monthly mean Arctic sea-ice drift. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 120, 74507475, doi:10.1002/2015JC011151.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tamura, T., , K. I. Ohshima, , and S. Nihashi, 2008: Mapping of sea ice production for Antarctic coastal polynyas. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L07606, doi:10.1029/2007GL032903.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Uotila, P., , P. R. Holland, , T. Vihma, , S. J. Marsland, , and N. Kimura, 2014: Is realistic Antarctic sea-ice extent in climate models the result of excessive ice drift? Ocean Modell., 79, 3342, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2014.04.004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, J. L., , R. W. Lindsay, , M. Steele, , and A. Schweiger, 2008: What drove the dramatic retreat of Arctic sea ice during summer 2007? Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L11505, doi:10.1029/2008GL034005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zunz, V., , H. Goosse, , and F. Massonnet, 2013: How does internal variability influence the ability of CMIP5 models to reproduce the recent trend in Southern Ocean sea ice extent? Cryosphere, 7, 451468, doi:10.5194/tc-7-451-2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 74 74 21
PDF Downloads 87 87 27

Observed Concentration Budgets of Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice

View More View Less
  • 1 British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • 2 Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

In recent decades, Antarctic sea ice has expanded slightly while Arctic sea ice has contracted dramatically. The anthropogenic contribution to these changes cannot be fully assessed unless climate models are able to reproduce them. Process-based evaluation is needed to provide a clear view of the capabilities and limitations of such models. In this study, ice concentration and drift derived from AMSR-E data during 2003–10 are combined to derive a climatology of the ice concentration budget at both poles. This enables an observational decomposition of the seasonal dynamic and thermodynamic changes in ice cover. In both hemispheres, the results show spring ice loss dominated by ice melting. In other seasons ice divergence maintains freezing in the inner pack while advection causes melting at the ice edge, as ice is transported beyond the region where it is thermodynamically sustainable. Mechanical redistribution provides an important sink of ice concentration in the central Arctic and around the Antarctic coastline. This insight builds upon existing understanding of the sea ice cycle gained from ice and climate models, and the datasets may provide a valuable tool in validating such models in the future.

Supplemental information related to this paper is available at the Journals Online website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0121.s1.

Corresponding author address: Paul Holland, British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, United Kingdom. E-mail: p.holland@bas.ac.uk

Abstract

In recent decades, Antarctic sea ice has expanded slightly while Arctic sea ice has contracted dramatically. The anthropogenic contribution to these changes cannot be fully assessed unless climate models are able to reproduce them. Process-based evaluation is needed to provide a clear view of the capabilities and limitations of such models. In this study, ice concentration and drift derived from AMSR-E data during 2003–10 are combined to derive a climatology of the ice concentration budget at both poles. This enables an observational decomposition of the seasonal dynamic and thermodynamic changes in ice cover. In both hemispheres, the results show spring ice loss dominated by ice melting. In other seasons ice divergence maintains freezing in the inner pack while advection causes melting at the ice edge, as ice is transported beyond the region where it is thermodynamically sustainable. Mechanical redistribution provides an important sink of ice concentration in the central Arctic and around the Antarctic coastline. This insight builds upon existing understanding of the sea ice cycle gained from ice and climate models, and the datasets may provide a valuable tool in validating such models in the future.

Supplemental information related to this paper is available at the Journals Online website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0121.s1.

Corresponding author address: Paul Holland, British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, United Kingdom. E-mail: p.holland@bas.ac.uk

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplemental Materials (DOCX 5.35 MB)
Save