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Response of the Baiu Rainband to Northwest Pacific SST Anomalies and Its Impact on Atmospheric Circulation

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  • 1 Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
  • | 2 Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan
  • | 3 Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
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Abstract

The Pacific–Japan (PJ) teleconnection pattern leads to a meridional precipitation dipole between the subtropics and East Asia in the summer of El Niño decaying years. However, observational analysis and model experiments indicate that increased sea surface temperature (SST) in the Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension (KOE) region, where a strong northward-decreasing SST gradient occurs, induces a northward shift of baiu rainfall with the subtropical jet, forming a tripolar precipitation anomaly pattern over the northwest Pacific. In July, the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode for precipitation represents the meridional dipole between subtropical and baiu rainfalls, while EOF-2 features the northward-shifted baiu rainband. The PJ atmospheric forcing increases KOE SST, which enhances northward shifts in the subtropical jet and baiu rainband, resulting in oceanic forcing over the KOE. In experiments using a regional climate model the subtropical jet response to KOE SST forcing explains about 20% of the anomalies in the control experiment. The northward-shifted baiu condensational heating also enhances the northward shift of the subtropical jet with a northeastward extension. In August when the baiu rainband disappears, the northward shift of the subtropical jet is enhanced mainly by KOE SST variability. During the summer, as a result of increased KOE SST and the northward-shifted baiu heating, cyclonic anomalies intensify over the Sea of Okhotsk and anticyclonic anomalies intensify over the northwest Pacific, affecting the western Pacific subtropical high. The results suggest that air–sea interaction over the KOE must be considered to better understand the summer northwest Pacific climate.

Corresponding author address: Shinji Matsumura, Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Kita 10 Nishi 5, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan. E-mail: matsusnj@ees.hokudai.ac.jp

Abstract

The Pacific–Japan (PJ) teleconnection pattern leads to a meridional precipitation dipole between the subtropics and East Asia in the summer of El Niño decaying years. However, observational analysis and model experiments indicate that increased sea surface temperature (SST) in the Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension (KOE) region, where a strong northward-decreasing SST gradient occurs, induces a northward shift of baiu rainfall with the subtropical jet, forming a tripolar precipitation anomaly pattern over the northwest Pacific. In July, the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode for precipitation represents the meridional dipole between subtropical and baiu rainfalls, while EOF-2 features the northward-shifted baiu rainband. The PJ atmospheric forcing increases KOE SST, which enhances northward shifts in the subtropical jet and baiu rainband, resulting in oceanic forcing over the KOE. In experiments using a regional climate model the subtropical jet response to KOE SST forcing explains about 20% of the anomalies in the control experiment. The northward-shifted baiu condensational heating also enhances the northward shift of the subtropical jet with a northeastward extension. In August when the baiu rainband disappears, the northward shift of the subtropical jet is enhanced mainly by KOE SST variability. During the summer, as a result of increased KOE SST and the northward-shifted baiu heating, cyclonic anomalies intensify over the Sea of Okhotsk and anticyclonic anomalies intensify over the northwest Pacific, affecting the western Pacific subtropical high. The results suggest that air–sea interaction over the KOE must be considered to better understand the summer northwest Pacific climate.

Corresponding author address: Shinji Matsumura, Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Kita 10 Nishi 5, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan. E-mail: matsusnj@ees.hokudai.ac.jp
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