• Comiso, J. C., C. L. Parkinson, R. Gersten, and L. Stock, 2008: Accelerated decline in the Arctic sea ice cover. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L01703, doi:10.1029/2007GL031972.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dee, D. P., and Coauthors, 2011: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553597, doi:10.1002/qj.828.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deser, C., R. Tomas, M. Alexander, and D. Lawrence, 2010: The seasonal atmosphere response to projected Arctic sea ice loss in the late twenty-first century. J. Climate, 23, 333351, doi:10.1175/2009JCLI3053.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deser, C., R. Tomas, and L. Sun, 2015: The role of ocean–atmosphere coupling in the zonal-mean atmospheric response to Arctic sea ice loss. J. Climate, 28, 21682186, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00325.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Francis, J. A., and E. Hunter, 2006: New insight into the disappearing Arctic sea ice. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 87, 509511, doi:10.1029/2006EO460001.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Francis, J. A., and S. J. Vavrus, 2012: Evidence linking Arctic amplification to extreme weather in mid-latitudes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L06801, doi:10.1029/2012GL051000.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gimbert, F., D. Marsan, J. Weiss, N. C. Jourdain, and B. Barnier, 2012: Sea ice inertial oscillations in the Arctic Basin. Cryosphere, 6, 11871201, doi:10.5194/tc-6-1187-2012.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graversen, R. G., T. Mauritsen, M. Tjernström, E. Källén, and G. Svensson, 2008: Vertical structure of recent Arctic warming. Nature, 451, 5356, doi:10.1038/nature06502.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graversen, R. G., T. Mauritsen, S. Drijfhout, M. Tjernström, and S. Mårtensson, 2011: Warm winds from the Pacific caused extensive Arctic sea-ice melt in summer 2007. Climate Dyn., 36, 21032112, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0809-z.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Honda, M., J. Inoue, and S. Yamane, 2009: Influence of low Arctic sea-ice minima on anomalously cold Eurasian winters. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L08707, doi:10.1029/2008GL037079.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hopsch, S., J. Cohen, and K. Dethloff, 2012: Analysis of a link between fall Arctic sea ice concentration and atmospheric patterns in the following winter. Tellus, 64A, 18624, doi:10.3402/tellusa.v64i0.18624.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaiser, R., K. Dethloff, D. Handorf, A. Rinke, and J. Cohen, 2012: Impact of sea ice cover changes on the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric winter circulation. Tellus, 64A, 11595, doi:10.3402/tellusa.v64i0.11595.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kapsch, M. L., R. G. Graversen, and M. Tjernström, 2013: Springtime atmospheric energy transport and the control of Arctic summer sea-ice extent. Nat. Climate Change, 3, 744748, doi:10.1038/nclimate1884.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kapsch, M. L., R. G. Graversen, T. Economou, and M. Tjernstrom, 2014: The importance of spring atmospheric conditions for prediction of the Arctic summer sea ice extent. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 52885296, doi:10.1002/2014GL060826.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kay, J. E., and A. Gettelman, 2009: Cloud influence on and response to seasonal Arctic sea ice loss. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D18204, doi:10.1029/2009JD011773.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kay, J. E., M. M. Holland, and A. Jahn, 2011: Inter-annual to multi-decadal Arctic sea ice extent trends in a warming world. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L15708, doi:10.1029/2011GL048008.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, B.-M., S.-W. Son, S.-K. Min, J.-H. Jeong, S.-J. Kim, X. Zhang, T. Shim, and J.-H. Yoon, 2014: Weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex by Arctic sea-ice loss. Nat. Commun., 5, 4646, doi:10.1038/NCOMMS5646.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Kug, J.-S., J.-H. Jeong, Y.-S. Jang, B.-M. Kim, C. K. Folland, S.-K. Min, and S.-W. Son, 2015: Two distinct influences of Arctic warming on cold winters over North America and East Asia. Nat. Geosci., 8, 759762, doi:10.1038/ngeo2517.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, S., S. B. Feldstein, D. Pollard, and T. S. White, 2011a: Do planetary wave dynamics explain equable climates? J. Climate, 24, 23912404, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI3825.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, S., T. Gong, N. Johnson, S. B. Feldstein, and D. Pollard, 2011b: On the possible link between tropical convection and the Northern Hemisphere Arctic surface air temperature change between 1958 and 2001. J. Climate, 24, 43504367, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI4003.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lindsay, R. W., and J. Zhang, 2005: The thinning of Arctic sea ice, 1988–2003: Have we passed a tipping point? J. Climate, 18, 48794894, doi:10.1175/JCLI3587.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Madec, G., 2008: NEMO ocean engine. L’Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace Note du Pôle de Modélisation 27, 193 pp.

  • Maslanik, J., J. Stroeve, C. Fowler, and W. Emery, 2011: Distribution and trends in Arctic sea ice age through spring 2011. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L13502, doi:10.1029/2011GL047735.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mizobata, K., K. Shimada, R. Woodgate, S.-I. Saitoh, and J. Wang, 2010: Estimation of heat flux through the eastern Bering Strait. J. Oceanogr., 66, 405424, doi:10.1007/s10872-010-0035-7.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newman, M., and Coauthors, 2016: The Pacific decadal oscillation, revisited. J. Climate, 29, 43994427, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0508.1.

  • Overland, J. E., and M. Wang, 2010: Large-scale atmospheric circulation changes are associated with the recent loss of Arctic sea ice. Tellus, 62A, 19, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0870.2009.00421.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Overland, J. E., J. A. Francis, E. Hanna, and M. Wang, 2012: The recent shift in early summer Arctic atmospheric circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L19804, doi:10.1029/2012GL053268.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, W., N. Keenlyside, M. Latif, A. Ströh, R. Redler, E. Roeckner, and G. Madec, 2009: Tropical Pacific climate and its response to global warming in the Kiel climate model. J. Climate, 22, 7192, doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2261.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Proshutinsky, A., D. Dukhovskoy, M.-L. Timmermans, R. Krishfield, and J. L. Bamber, 2015: Arctic circulation regimes. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, 373A, 20140160, doi:10.1098/rsta.2014.0160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rayner, N. A., D. E. Parker, E. B. Horton, C. K. Folland, L. V. Alexander, D. P. Rowell, E. C. Kent, and A. Kaplan, 2003: Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 44074435, doi:10.1029/2002JD002670.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodionov, S. N., 2004: A sequential algorithm for testing climate regime shifts. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L09204, doi:10.1029/2004GL019448.

  • Roeckner, E., and Coauthors, 2003: The atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5. Part I: Model description. Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Rep. 349, 127 pp.

  • Screen, J. A., and I. Simmonds, 2010: The central role of diminishing sea ice in recent Arctic temperature amplification. Nature, 464, 13341337, doi:10.1038/nature09051.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Screen, J. A., and J. A. Francis, 2016: Contribution of sea-ice loss to Arctic amplification is regulated by Pacific Ocean decadal variability. Nat. Climate Change, 6, 856860, doi:101038/nclimate3011.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Screen, J. A., C. Deser, and I. Simmonds, 2012: Local remote controls on observed Arctic warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L10709, doi:10.1029/2012GL051598.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Serreze, M. C., M. M. Holland, and J. Stroeve, 2007: Perspectives on the Arctic’s shrinking sea-ice cover. Science, 315, 15331536, doi:10.1126/science.1139426.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shimada, K., T. Kamoshida, M. Itoh, S. Nishino, E. Carmack, F. McLaughlin, S. Zimmermann, and A. Proshutinsky, 2006: Pacific Ocean inflow: Influence on catastrophic reduction of sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L08605, doi:10.1029/2005GL025624.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strang, G., 1986: Introduction to Applied Mathematics. Wellesley-Cambridge Press, 758 pp.

  • Stroeve, J. C., M. C. Serreze, M. M. Holland, J. E. Kay, J. Malanik, and A. P. Barrett, 2012: The Arctic’s rapidly shrinking sea ice cover: A research synthesis. Climatic Change, 110, 10051027, doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0101-1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strong, C., G. G. Magnusdottir, and H. Stern, 2009: Observed feedback between winter sea ice and the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 22, 60216032, doi:10.1175/2009JCLI3100.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Swart, N. C., J. C. Fyfe, E. Hawkins, J. E. Kay, and A. Jahn, 2015: Influence of internal variability on Arctic sea-ice trends. Nat. Climate Change, 5, 8689, doi:10.1038/nclimate2483.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tsukernik, M., C. Deser, M. Alexander, and R. Tomas, 2010: Atmospheric forcing of Fram Strait sea ice export: A closer look. Climate Dyn., 35, 13491360, doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0647-z.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Valcke, S., 2013: The OASIS3 coupler: A European climate modelling community software. Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 373388, doi:10.5194/gmd-6-373-2013.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vihma, T., 2014: Effects of Arctic sea ice decline on weather and climate: A review. Surv. Geophys., 35, 11751214, doi:10.1007/s10712-014-9284-0.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Von Storch, H., and F. W. Zwiers, 1999: Statistical Analysis in Climate Research. Cambridge University Press, 494 pp.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, J., J. Zhang, E. Watanabe, M. Ikeda, K. Mizobata, J. E. Walsh, X. Bai, and B. Wu, 2009: Is the dipole anomaly a major driver to record lows in Arctic summer sea ice extent? Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L05706, doi:10.1029/2008GL036706.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woodgate, R. A., T. J. Weingartner, and R. Lindsay, 2010: The 2007 Bering Strait oceanic heat flux and anomalous Arctic sea-ice retreat. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L01602, doi:10.1029/2009GL041621.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woodgate, R. A., T. J. Weingartner, and R. Lindsay, 2012: Observed increases in Bering Strait oceanic fluxes from the Pacific to the Arctic from 2001 to 2011 and their impacts on the Arctic Ocean water column. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L24603, doi:10.1029/2012GL054092.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, D. L., and N. J. Lee, 2012: Arctic low cloud changes as observed by MISR and CALIOP: Implication for the enhanced autumnal warming and sea ice loss. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D07107, doi:10.1029/2011JD017050.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, J., R. Lindsay, M. Steele, and A. Schweiger, 2008: What drove the dramatic retreat of Arctic sea ice during summer 2007? Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L11505, doi:10.1029/2008GL034005.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, J., R. Lindsay, A. Schweiger, and M. Steele, 2013: The impact of an intense summer cyclone on 2012 Arctic sea ice retreat. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 720726, doi:10.1002/grl.50190.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, R., 2015: Mechanisms for low-frequency variability of summer Arctic sea ice extent. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 112, 45704575, doi:10.1073/pnas.1422296112.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 100 100 22
PDF Downloads 78 78 13

Impact of Poleward Moisture Transport from the North Pacific on the Acceleration of Sea Ice Loss in the Arctic since 2002

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Ocean Science, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan, South Korea
  • 2 Department of Marine Sciences and Convergent Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, South Korea
  • 3 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts
  • 4 GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany
  • 5 Department of Ocean Science, Inha University, Incheon, South Korea
  • 6 Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Ansan, South Korea
  • 7 NOAA/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Arctic sea ice area (SIA) during late summer and early fall decreased substantially over the last four decades, and its decline accelerated beginning in the early 2000s. Statistical analyses of observations show that enhanced poleward moisture transport from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean contributed to the accelerated SIA decrease during the most recent period. As a consequence, specific humidity in the Arctic Pacific sector significantly increased along with an increase of downward longwave radiation beginning in 2002, which led to a significant acceleration in the decline of SIA in the Arctic Pacific sector. The resulting sea ice loss led to increased evaporation in the Arctic Ocean, resulting in a further increase of the specific humidity in mid-to-late fall, thus acting as a positive feedback to the sea ice loss. The overall set of processes is also found in a long control simulation of a coupled climate model.

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Dr. Ho Jin Lee, hjlee@kmou.ac.kr

Abstract

Arctic sea ice area (SIA) during late summer and early fall decreased substantially over the last four decades, and its decline accelerated beginning in the early 2000s. Statistical analyses of observations show that enhanced poleward moisture transport from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean contributed to the accelerated SIA decrease during the most recent period. As a consequence, specific humidity in the Arctic Pacific sector significantly increased along with an increase of downward longwave radiation beginning in 2002, which led to a significant acceleration in the decline of SIA in the Arctic Pacific sector. The resulting sea ice loss led to increased evaporation in the Arctic Ocean, resulting in a further increase of the specific humidity in mid-to-late fall, thus acting as a positive feedback to the sea ice loss. The overall set of processes is also found in a long control simulation of a coupled climate model.

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Dr. Ho Jin Lee, hjlee@kmou.ac.kr
Save