• Ambaum, M., B. Hoskins, and D. Stephenson, 2001: Arctic Oscillation or North Atlantic Oscillation? J. Climate, 14, 34953507, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<3495:AOONAO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Behera, S., J. V. Ratnam, Y. Masumoto, and T. Yamagata, 2013: Origin of extreme summers in Europe: The Indo-Pacific connection. Climate Dyn., 41, 663676, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1524-8.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Branstator, G., 2002: Circumglobal teleconnections, the jet stream waveguide, and the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 15, 18931910, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<1893:CTTJSW>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, M., P. Xie, J. E. Janowiak, and P. A. Arkin, 2002: Global land precipitation: A 50-yr monthly analysis based on gauge observations. J. Hydrometeor., 3, 249266, doi:10.1175/1525-7541(2002)003<0249:GLPAYM>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ding, Q., and B. Wang, 2005: Circumglobal teleconnection in the Northern Hemisphere summer. J. Climate, 18, 34833505, doi:10.1175/JCLI3473.1.

  • Ding, Y., 2004: Seasonal march of the East Asian summer monsoon. East Asian Monsoon, C. P. Chang, Ed., World Scientific Publishing, 3–53.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Ding, Y., Z. Wang, and Y. Sun, 2008: Inter-decadal variation of the summer precipitation in East China and its association with decreasing Asian summer monsoon. Part I: Observed evidences. Int. J. Climatol., 28, 11391161, doi:10.1002/joc.1615.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Enomoto, T., B. J. Hoskins, and Y. Matsuda, 2003: The formation mechanism of the Bonin high in August. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129, 157178, doi:10.1256/qj.01.211.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feng, S., and Q. Hu, 2004: Variations in the teleconnection of ENSO and summer rainfall in northern China: A role of the Indian summer monsoon. J. Climate, 17, 48714881, doi:10.1175/JCLI-3245.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gong, D., and S. Wang, 1999: Definition of Antarctic Oscillation index. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 459462, doi:10.1029/1999GL900003.

  • Gong, D., and C.-H. Ho, 2003: Arctic Oscillation signals in the East Asian summer monsoon. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4066, doi:10.1029/2002JD002193.

  • Guan, Z., and D. Jin, 2013: Two opposite extreme events in seasonal mean winter rainfall over East China during the past three decades. Atmos. Oceanic Sci. Lett., 6, 240247, 10.3878/j.issn.1674-2834.12.0110.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guan, Z., and T. Yamagata, 2003: The unusual summer of 1994 in East Asia: IOD teleconnections. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1544, doi:10.1029/2002GL016831.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • He, J., B. Zhou, M. Wen, and F. Li, 2001: Vertical circulation structure, interannual variation features and variation mechanism of western Pacific subtropical high. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 4, 497510.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hong, X., and R. Lu, 2016: The meridional displacement of the summer Asian jet, Silk Road pattern, and tropical SST anomalies. J. Climate, 29, 37533766, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0541.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoskins, B. J., and T. Ambrizzi, 1993: Rossby wave propagation on a realistic longitudinally varying flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 16611671, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<1661:RWPOAR>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hou, J., and Z. Guan, 2013: Climatological characteristics of frontogenesis and related circulations over east China in June and July. J. Meteor. Res., 27, 144169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hsu, H., and S. Lin, 2007: Asymmetry of the tripole rainfall pattern during the East Asian summer. J. Climate, 20, 44434458, doi:10.1175/JCLI4246.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hu, Z., 1997: Interdecadal variability of summer climate over East Asia and its association with 500 hPa height and global sea surface temperature. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 19 40319 412, doi:10.1029/97JD01052.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, G., 2004: An index measuring the interannual variation of the East Asian summer monsoon—The EAP index. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 21, 4152, doi:10.1007/BF02915679.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, R., and W. Li, 1987: Influence of heat source anomaly over the tropical western Pacific on the subtropical high over East Asia. Proc. Int. Conf. on the General Circulation of East Asia, Chengdu, China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 40–51.

  • Huang, R., and Y. Wu, 1989: The influence of ENSO on the summer climate change in China and its mechanism. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 6, 2132, doi:10.1007/BF02656915.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, R., J. Chen, L. Wang, and Z. Lin, 2012: Characteristics, processes, and causes of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon system. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 29, 910942, doi:10.1007/s00376-012-2015-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hurrell, J. W., 1995: Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: Regional temperatures and precipitation. Science, 269, 676679, doi:10.1126/science.269.5224.676.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jin, D., Z. Guan, and W. Tang, 2013: The extreme drought event during winter–spring of 2011 in east China: Combined influences of teleconnection in mid–high latitudes and thermal forcing in the Maritime Continent region. J. Climate, 26, 82108222, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00652.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jin, D., Z. Guan, J. Cai, and W. Tang, 2015: Interannual variations of regional summer precipitation in mainland China and their possible relationships with different teleconnections in the past five decades. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 93, 265283, doi:10.2151/jmsj.2015-015.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jin, D., S. Hameed, and L. Huo, 2016: Recent changes in ENSO teleconnection over the western Pacific impacts the eastern China precipitation dipole. J. Climate, 29, 75877598, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0235.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kalnay, E., and Coauthors, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437471, doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kosaka, Y., and H. Nakamura, 2006: Structure and dynamics of the summertime Pacific–Japan teleconnection pattern. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 132, 20092030, doi:10.1256/qj.05.204.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lau, K.-M., and H. Weng, 2001: Coherent modes of global SST and summer rainfall over China: An assessment of the regional impacts of the 1997–98 El Niño. J. Climate, 14, 12941308, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<1294:CMOGSA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lei, Y., and A. Duan, 2011: Prolonged dry episodes and drought over China. Int. J. Climatol., 31, 18311840, doi:10.1002/joc.2197.

  • Li, J., and J. Wang, 2003: A modified zonal index and its physical sense. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1632, doi:10.1029/2003GL017441.

  • Li, M., Z. Guan, D. Jin, J. Han, and Q. Zhang, 2016: Anomalous circulation patterns in association with two types of daily precipitation extremes over southeastern China during boreal summer. J. Meteor. Res., 30, 183202, doi:10.1007/s13351-016-5070-x.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lu, R.-Y., J.-H. Oh, and B.-J. Kim, 2002: A teleconnection pattern in upper-level meridional wind over the North African and Eurasian continent in summer. Tellus, 54A, 4455, doi:10.3402/tellusa.v54i1.12122.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nan, S., and J. Li, 2003: The relationship between the summer precipitation in the Yangtze River valley and the boreal spring Southern Hemisphere annular mode. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 2266, doi:10.1029/2003GL018381.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nitta, T., 1987: Convective activities in the tropical western Pacific and their impact on the Northern Hemisphere summer circulation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 65, 373390, doi:10.2151/jmsj1965.65.3_373.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pan, L., 2005: Observed positive feedback between the NAO and the North Atlantic SSTA tripole. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L06707, doi:10.1029/2005GL022427.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ramage, C. S., 1968: Role of a tropical “Maritime Continent” in the atmospheric circulation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 96, 365369, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1968)096<0365:ROATMC>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodwell, M. J., and B. J. Hoskins, 1996: Monsoons and the dynamics of deserts. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 122, 13851404, doi:10.1002/qj.49712253408.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sardeshmukh, P. D., and B. J. Hoskins, 1988: The generation of global rotational flow by steady idealized tropical divergence. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 12281251, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1988)045<1228:TGOGRF>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, T. M., R. W. Reynolds, T. C. Peterson, and J. Lawrimore, 2008: Improvements to NOAA’s historical merged land–ocean surface temperature analysis (1880–2006). J. Climate, 21, 22832296, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI2100.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, J., and H. Wang, 2012: Changes of the connection between the summer North Atlantic Oscillation and the East Asian summer rainfall. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D08110, doi:10.1029/2012JD017482.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, J., H. Wang, and W. Yuan, 2008: Decadal variations of the relationship between the summer North Atlantic Oscillation and middle East Asian air temperature. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D15107, doi:10.1029/2007JD009626.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Takaya, K., and H. Nakamura, 2001: A formulation of a phase-independent wave-activity flux of stationary and migratory quasigeostrophic eddies on a zonally varying basic flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 608627, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058<0608:AFOAPI>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tao, S., and L. Chen, 1987: A review of recent research on the East Asian summer monsoon in China. Monsoon Meteorology, C. P. Chang and T. N. Krishnamurti, Eds., Oxford University Press, 60–92.

  • Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 12971300, doi:10.1029/98GL00950.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker, G. T., and E. W. Bliss, 1932: World weather V. Mem. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 4, 5384.

  • Wallace, J. M., 2000: North Atlantic Oscillation/annular mode: Two paradigms—One phenomenon. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126, 791805, doi:10.1002/qj.49712656402.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallace, J. M., and D. S. Gutzler, 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 784812, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<0784:TITGHF>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallace, J. M., and D. W. J. Thompson, 2002: The Pacific center of action of the Northern Hemisphere annular mode: Real or artifact? J. Climate, 15, 19871991, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<1987:TPCOAO>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, B., and LinHo, 2002: Rainy season of the Asian–Pacific summer monsoon. J. Climate, 15, 386398, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<0386:RSOTAP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, L., and W. Gu, 2016: The eastern China flood of June 2015 and its causes. Sci. Bull., 61, 178184, doi:10.1007/s11434-015-0967-9.

  • Wang, Z., A. Duan, S. Yang, and K. Ullah, 2017: Atmospheric moisture budget and its regulation on the variability of summer precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 122, 614630, doi:10.1002/2016JD025515.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watanabe, M., 2004: Asian jet waveguide and a downstream extension of the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 17, 46744691, doi:10.1175/JCLI-3228.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wei, F., and X. Zhang, 1988: The classification and forecasting of summer rain-belt in the east part of China (in Chinese). Meteor. Mon., 14, 1519.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, R., and B. Wang, 2002: A contrast of the East Asian summer monsoon–ENSO relationship between 1962–77 and 1978–93. J. Climate, 15, 32663279, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<3266:ACOTEA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, R., S. Yang, S. Liu, L. Sun, Y. Lian, and Z. Gao, 2011: Northeast China summer temperature and North Atlantic SST. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D16116, doi:10.1029/2011JD015779.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, Z., B. Wang, J. Li, and F.-F. Jin, 2009: An empirical seasonal prediction model of the East Asian summer monsoon using ENSO and NAO. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D18120, doi:10.1029/2009JD011733.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, X., 1992: Observational study of teleconnections in the geopotential height during the northern hemispheric summer (in Chinese). Chin. J. Atmos. Sci., 16, 513521.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, R., B. Wang, and T. Zhou, 2004: Tropospheric cooling and summer monsoon weakening trend over East Asia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L22212, doi:10.1029/2004GL021270.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhai, P., X. Zhang, H. Wan, and X. Pan, 2005: Trends in total precipitation and frequency of daily precipitation extremes over China. J. Climate, 18, 10961108, doi:10.1175/JCLI-3318.1.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, R., A. Sumi, and M. Kimoto, 1999: A diagnostic study of the impact of El Nino on the precipitation in China. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 16, 229241, doi:10.1007/BF02973084.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, Q., and N. Shi, 1993: On the intensity and interannual variations of northern teleconnection patterns at 500 hPa in early summer and their relationship with monsoon rainfall in China (in Chinese). J. Trop. Meteor., 9, 111. (in Chinese).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, Y., H. Wang, W. Zhou, and J. Ma, 2011: 2011: Recent changes in the summer precipitation pattern in East China and the background circulation. Climate Dyn., 36, 14631473, doi:10.1007/s00382-010-0852-9.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 57 57 16
PDF Downloads 44 44 11

Summer Rainfall Seesaw between Hetao and the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River and Its Relationship with the North Atlantic Oscillation

View More View Less
  • 1 Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, and State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China
  • 2 Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
© Get Permissions
Restricted access

Abstract

Using the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis and other observational datasets, the authors have investigated the relationship of summer rainfall variations between the Hetao region of northern China and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MLRYR). The results have demonstrated that rainfall in Hetao varies out of phase with that in MLRYR on the interannual time scales. This phenomenon is referred to as the Hetao–Yangtze rainfall seesaw (HYRS). An HYRS index is defined to reveal both spatial and temporal features of HYRS. It is found that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) affects the HYRS. In years when the NAO is in its positive phase, anomalous divergences in the lower troposphere and anomalous convergences in the upper troposphere are observed in regions of the Mediterranean and eastern Europe. The anomalous convergences in the upper troposphere occur as the positive Rossby wave source excites a circumglobal teleconnection (CGT) in the midlatitudes, exhibiting the eastward propagation of Rossby wave energy along the Asian jet. Meanwhile, the Eurasian–Pacific (EUP) teleconnection also affects the HYRS. Influenced mainly by the CGT pattern, the circulations over Hetao and MLRYR are consequently perturbed. The atmosphere over Hetao converges anomalously in the lower troposphere and diverges anomalously in the upper troposphere, facilitating more than normal rainfall there. At the same time, the atmosphere over MLRYR diverges anomalously in the lower troposphere and converges anomalously in the upper troposphere, resulting in more than normal summer rainfall in MLRYR. In this way, the north–south rainfall seesaw is formed. This NAO-induced rainfall seesaw is potentially useful for summer rainfall predictions in both MLRYR and the Hetao region of northern China.

Denotes content that is immediately available upon publication as open access.

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Zhaoyong Guan, guanzy@nuist.edu.cn

Abstract

Using the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis and other observational datasets, the authors have investigated the relationship of summer rainfall variations between the Hetao region of northern China and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MLRYR). The results have demonstrated that rainfall in Hetao varies out of phase with that in MLRYR on the interannual time scales. This phenomenon is referred to as the Hetao–Yangtze rainfall seesaw (HYRS). An HYRS index is defined to reveal both spatial and temporal features of HYRS. It is found that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) affects the HYRS. In years when the NAO is in its positive phase, anomalous divergences in the lower troposphere and anomalous convergences in the upper troposphere are observed in regions of the Mediterranean and eastern Europe. The anomalous convergences in the upper troposphere occur as the positive Rossby wave source excites a circumglobal teleconnection (CGT) in the midlatitudes, exhibiting the eastward propagation of Rossby wave energy along the Asian jet. Meanwhile, the Eurasian–Pacific (EUP) teleconnection also affects the HYRS. Influenced mainly by the CGT pattern, the circulations over Hetao and MLRYR are consequently perturbed. The atmosphere over Hetao converges anomalously in the lower troposphere and diverges anomalously in the upper troposphere, facilitating more than normal rainfall there. At the same time, the atmosphere over MLRYR diverges anomalously in the lower troposphere and converges anomalously in the upper troposphere, resulting in more than normal summer rainfall in MLRYR. In this way, the north–south rainfall seesaw is formed. This NAO-induced rainfall seesaw is potentially useful for summer rainfall predictions in both MLRYR and the Hetao region of northern China.

Denotes content that is immediately available upon publication as open access.

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author: Zhaoyong Guan, guanzy@nuist.edu.cn
Save