• Bao, X. H., F. Q. Zhang, and J. H. Sun, 2011: Diurnal variations of warm-season precipitation east of the Tibetan Plateau over China. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 27902810, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-11-00006.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, G. X., W. M. Sha, and T. Iwasaki, 2009: Diurnal variation of precipitation over southeastern China: Spatial distribution and its seasonality. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D13103, doi:10.1029/2008JD011103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, G. X., W. Sha, T. Iwasaki, and K. Ueno, 2012: Diurnal variation of rainfall in the Yangtze River Valley during the spring‐summer transition from TRMM measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D06106, doi:10.1029/2011JD017056.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, H. M., T. J. Zhou, R. C. Yu, and J. Li, 2009: Summer rain fall duration and its diurnal cycle over the U.S. Great Plains. Int. J. Climatol., 29, 15151519, doi:10.1002/joc.1806.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, H. M., R. C. Yu, J. Li, W. H. Yuan, and T. J. Zhou, 2010: Why nocturnal long-duration rainfall presents an eastward delayed diurnal phase along the Yangtze River. J. Climate, 23, 905917, doi:10.1175/2009JCLI3187.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, J., Y. G. Zheng, X. L. Zhang, and P. J. Zhu, 2013: Distribution and diurnal variation of warm-season short-duration heavy rainfall in relation to the MCSs in China. Acta Meteor. Sin., 27, 868888, doi:10.1007/s13351-013-0605-x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, X. C., K. Zhao, and M. Xue, 2014: Spatial and temporal characteristics of warm season convection over Pearl River Delta region, China, based on 3 years of operational radar data. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 12 44712 465, doi:10.1002/2014JD021965.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, X. C., K. Zhao, M. Xue, B. Zhou, X. Huang, and W. Xu, 2015: Radar-observed diurnal cycle and propagation of convection over the Pearl River Delta during Mei-Yu season. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 12 55712 575, doi:10.1002/2015JD023872.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dai, A. G., F. Giorgi, and K. E. Trenberth, 1999: Observed and model simulated precipitation diurnal cycle over the contiguous United States. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 63776402, doi:10.1029/98JD02720.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ding, Y. L., 1992: Summer monsoon rainfalls in China. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 70, 373396.

  • Ding, Y. L., 1994: Monsoons over China. Kluwer Academy, 419 pp.

  • Ding, Y. L., and J. C. L. Chan, 2005: The East Asian summer monsoon: An overview. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 89, 117142, doi:10.1007/s00703-005-0125-z.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, S. S., 1986: The Heavy Rain during the Pre-summer Period over Southern China (in Chinese). Guangdong Technology Press, 244 pp.

  • Joyce, R. J., J. E. Janowiak, P. A. Arkin, and P. Xie, 2004: CMORPH: A method that produces global precipitation estimates from passive microwave and infrared data at high spatial and temporal resolution. J. Hydrometeor., 5, 487503, doi:10.1175/1525-7541(2004)005<0487:CAMTPG>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kincer, J. B., 1916: Daytime and nighttime precipitation and their economic significance. Mon. Wea. Rev., 44, 628633, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1916)44<628:DANPAT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Landin, M. G., and L. F. Bosart, 1985: Diurnal variability of precipitation in the northeastern United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 9891014, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1985)113<0989:DVOPIT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, B., L. P. Liu, S. X. Zhao, and C. Y. Huang, 2013: Numerical experiment of the effect of local low terrain on heavy rainstorm of South China (in Chinese with English abstract). Plateau Meteor., 32 (6), 16381650.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, J., R. C. Yu, and T. J. Zhou, 2008: Seasonal variation of the diurnal cycle of rainfall in southern contiguous China. J. Climate, 21, 60366043, doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2188.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liang, X. Z., L. Li, A. G. Dai, and K. E. Kunkel, 2004: Regional climate model simulation of summer precipitation diurnal cycle over the United States. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L24208, doi:10.1029/2004GL021054.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luo, Y. L., 2016: Advances in understanding the early-summer heavy rainfall over south China. The Global Monsoon System, III: A WMO Quadrennial Review, C.-P. Chang et al., Eds., World Scientific Series on Asia-Pacific Weather and Climate, Vol. 9, World Scientific, in press.

  • Luo, Y. L., H. Wang, R. H. Zhang, W. Qian, and Z. Luo, 2013: Comparison of rainfall characteristics and convective properties of monsoon precipitation systems over South China and the Yangze and Huai River Basin. J. Climate, 26, 110132, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00100.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luo, Y. L., Y. Gong, and D. L. Zhang, 2014: Initiation and organizational modes of an extreme-rain-producing mesoscale convective system along a mei-yu front in east China. Mon. Wea. Rev., 142, 203221, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-13-00111.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nozumi, Y., and H. Arakawa, 1968: Prefrontal rain bands located in the warm sector of subtropical cyclones over the ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 73, 487492, doi:10.1029/JB073i002p00487.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pan, Y., Y. Shen, Q. Q. Yu, and P. Zhao, 2012: Merged analyses of gauge-satellite hourly precipitation over China based on OI technique (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Meteor. Sin., 70, 13811389.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sun, J. H., and S. X. Zhao, 2002: A study of mesoscale convective systems and its environmental fields during the June 1994 record heavy rainfall in South China. Part II: Effect of physical processes, initial environmental fields and topography on meso-β convective system (in Chinese). Chin. J. Atmos. Sci., 26, 633646.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tao, S. Y., 1981: Storm Rainfall in China (in Chinese). Science Press, 225 pp.

  • Tao, S. Y., and L. X. Chen, 1987: A review of recent research on the East Asian summer monsoon in China. Monsoon Meteorology, T. N. Krishnamurti and C. P. Chang, Eds., Oxford University Press, 60–92.

  • Wallace, J. M., 1975: Diurnal variations in precipitation and thunderstorm frequency over the conterminous United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 103, 406419, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1975)103<0406:DVIPAT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, C. C., G. T. Chen, and R. E. Carbone, 2004: A climatology of warm-season cloud patterns over East Asia based on GMS infrared brightness temperature observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 132, 16061629, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<1606:ACOWCP>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, W. X., and E. J. Zipser, 2011: Diurnal variations of precipitation, deep convection, and lightning over and east of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. J. Climate, 24, 448465, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3719.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xu, W. X., E. J. Zipser, and C. Liu, 2009: Rainfall characteristics and convective properties of mei-yu precipitation systems over South China, Taiwan, and the South China Sea. Part I: TRMM observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 42614275, doi:10.1175/2009MWR2982.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yamada, T. J., M. I. Lee, M. Kanamitsu, and H. Kanamaru, 2012: Diurnal characteristics of rainfall over the contiguous United States and northern Mexico in the dynamically downscaled reanalysis dataset (US10). J. Hydrometeor., 13, 11421148, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-11-0121.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, R. C., T. J. Zhou, A. Y. Xiong, Y. Zhu, and J. Li, 2007: Diurnal variations of summer precipitation over contiguous China. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01704, doi:10.1029/2006GL028129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, D.-L., 1998: Roles of various diabatic physical processes in mesoscale models (in Chinese). Chin. J. Atmos. Sci., 22, 548561.

  • Zhang, D.-L., and J. M. Fritsch, 1986: Numerical simulation of the meso-β scale structure and evolution of the 1977 Johnstown Flood. Part I: Model description and verification. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 19131943, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1986)043<1913:NSOTMS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, D.-L., and J. M. Fritsch, 1988: Numerical sensitivity experiments of varying model physics on the structure, evolution, and dynamics of two mesoscale convective systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 261293, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1988)045<0261:NSEOVM>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zheng, Y. G., and J. Chen, 2011: A climatology of deep convection over south China and adjacent seas during summer. J. Trop. Meteor., 27, 495508.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhou, T. J., R. C. Yu, H. M. Chen, A. Dai, and Y. Pan, 2008: Summer precipitation frequency, intensity, and diurnal cycle over China: A comparison of satellite data with rain gauge observations. J. Climate, 21, 39974010, doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2028.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 446 281 24
PDF Downloads 356 209 18

Diurnal Variations of Presummer Rainfall over Southern China

View More View Less
  • 1 State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, and Guangzhou Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Guangzhou, China
  • | 2 State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China, and Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland
  • | 3 State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China
Restricted access

Abstract

In this study, the presummer diurnal cycle of rainfall (DCR) over southern China is examined using the merged 0.1°-resolution gridded hourly rain gauge and satellite rainfall dataset and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Final Global Analysis during April to June of 2008–2015. Results show pronounced diurnal variations in rainfall amount, frequency, and intensity over southern China, with substantially different amplitudes from southwestern to southeastern China, and from the pre- to postmonsoon-onset period. Southwestern China often encounters significant nocturnal-to-morning rainfall under the influence of enhanced nocturnal low-level southwesterly winds. Southeastern China is dominated by afternoon rainfall, as a result of surface heating, likely aided by local topographical lifting. Both the pre- and postmonsoon-onset periods exhibit two diurnal rainfall peaks: one in the early morning and the other in the late afternoon. But the latter shows the two peaks with nearly equal amplitude whereas the former displays a much larger early morning peak than that in the late afternoon. Three propagating modes accounting for the presummer DCR are found: (i) an eastward- or southeastward-propagating mode occurs mostly over southwestern China that is associated with enhanced transport of warm and moist air from tropical origin and the induced low-level convergence, (ii) a quasi-stationary mode over southeastern China appears locally in the warm sector with weak-gradient flows, and (iii) an inland-propagating mode occurs during the daytime in association with sea breezes along the southern coastal regions, especially evident throughout the postmonsoon-onset period.

Denotes Open Access content.

Corresponding author e-mail: Dr. Zhina Jiang, jzn@camscma.cn

Abstract

In this study, the presummer diurnal cycle of rainfall (DCR) over southern China is examined using the merged 0.1°-resolution gridded hourly rain gauge and satellite rainfall dataset and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Final Global Analysis during April to June of 2008–2015. Results show pronounced diurnal variations in rainfall amount, frequency, and intensity over southern China, with substantially different amplitudes from southwestern to southeastern China, and from the pre- to postmonsoon-onset period. Southwestern China often encounters significant nocturnal-to-morning rainfall under the influence of enhanced nocturnal low-level southwesterly winds. Southeastern China is dominated by afternoon rainfall, as a result of surface heating, likely aided by local topographical lifting. Both the pre- and postmonsoon-onset periods exhibit two diurnal rainfall peaks: one in the early morning and the other in the late afternoon. But the latter shows the two peaks with nearly equal amplitude whereas the former displays a much larger early morning peak than that in the late afternoon. Three propagating modes accounting for the presummer DCR are found: (i) an eastward- or southeastward-propagating mode occurs mostly over southwestern China that is associated with enhanced transport of warm and moist air from tropical origin and the induced low-level convergence, (ii) a quasi-stationary mode over southeastern China appears locally in the warm sector with weak-gradient flows, and (iii) an inland-propagating mode occurs during the daytime in association with sea breezes along the southern coastal regions, especially evident throughout the postmonsoon-onset period.

Denotes Open Access content.

Corresponding author e-mail: Dr. Zhina Jiang, jzn@camscma.cn
Save