• Ashouri, H., K.-L. Hsu, S. Sorooshian, D. K. Braithwaite, K. R. Knapp, L. D. Cecil, B. R. Nelson, and O. P. Prat, 2015: PERSIANN-CDR: Daily precipitation climate data record from multisatellite observations for hydrological and climate studies. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 96, 6983, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00068.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brakenridge, G. R., 2013: Global active archive of large flood events. Dartmouth Flood Observatory. [Available online at http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/Archives/index.html.]

  • Blersch, D. J., and T. C. Probert, 1991: Geostationary meteorological satellite systems—An overview. J. Pract. Appl. Space, 2, 113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, T.-C., 1985: Global water vapor flux and maintenance during FGGE. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 18011819, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1985)113<1801:GWVFAM>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, T.-C., 2002: A North Pacific short-wave train during the extreme phases of ENSO. J. Climate, 15, 23592376, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<2359:ANPSWT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, T.-C., W.-R. Huang, and J.-h. Yoon, 2004: Interannual variation of the East Asian cold surge activity. J. Climate, 17, 401413, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0401:IVOTEA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, T.-C., J.-D. Tsay, M.-C. Yen, and J. Matsumoto, 2013a: The winter rainfall of Malaysia. J. Climate, 26, 936958, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00174.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, T.-C., J.-D. Tsay, M.-C. Yen, and J. Matsumoto, 2013b: Interannual variation of the winter rainfall in Malaysia caused by the activity of rain-producing disturbances. J. Climate, 26, 46304648, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00367.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, T.-C., J.-D. Tsay, J. Matsumoto, and J. Alpert, 2015a: Development and formation mechanism of the Southeast Asian winter heavy rainfall events around the South China Sea. Part I: Formation and propagation of cold surge vortex. J. Climate, 28, 14171443, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00170.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, T.-C., J.-D. Tsay, and J. Matsumoto, 2015b: Development and formation mechanism of the Southeast Asian winter heavy rainfall events around the South China Sea. Part II: Multiple interactions. J. Climate, 28, 14441464, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00171.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dee, D. P., and Coauthors, 2011: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553597, doi:10.1002/qj.828.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Economist, 2015: Construction in the South China Sea: Reclamation marks. Economist, 28 February 2015. [Available online at http://www.economist.com/news/asia/21645268-unprecedented-building-boom-reclamation-marks.]

  • Guha-Sapir, D., R. Below, and P. Hoyois, 2013: The international disaster database. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters. [Available online at http://www.emdat.be/.]

  • Huffman, G. J., and D. T. Bolvin, 2013: GPCP version 2.2 SG combined precipitation data set documentation. NASA Rep., 46 pp. [Available online at ftp://meso.gsfc.nasa.gov/pub/gpcp-v2.2/doc/V2.2_doc.pdf.]

  • Huffman, G. J., and D. T. Bolvin, 2015: Real-time TRMM multi-satellite precipitation analysis data set documentation. NASA Rep., 48 pp. [Available online at ftp://trmmopen.gsfc.nasa.gov/pub/merged/V7Documents/3B4XRT_doc_V7.pdf.]

  • Johnson, E. S., F. Bonjean, G. S. E. Lagerloef, and J. T. Gunn, 2007: Validation and error analysis of OSCAR sea surface currents. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 24, 688701, doi:10.1175/JTECH1971.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, R. H., 2006: Mesoscale processes. The Asian Monsoon, B. Wang, Ed., Springer, 331–356.

  • Johnson, R. H., and R. A. Houze, 1987: Precipitating cloud systems of the Asian monsoon. Monsoon Meteorology, Geol. Geophys. Monogr., No. 7, Oxford University Press, 298–353.

  • Juneng, L., and F. T. Tangang, 2005: Evolution of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in Southeast Asia region and its relationship with atmosphere–ocean variations in Indo-Pacific sector. Climate Dyn., 25, 337350, doi:10.1007/s00382-005-0031-6.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Juneng, L., and Coauthors, 2016: Sensitivity of Southeast Asia rainfall simulations to cumulus and air-sea flux parameterizations in RegCM4. Climate Res., 69, 5977, doi:10.3354/cr01386.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MarineTraffic, 2014: Density maps—All traffic overview, global satellite AIS coverage. [Available online at http://www.marinetraffic.com/en/p/density-maps.]

  • Meteorological Services Centre Japan, 1997: GMS-5 user’s guide. 3rd ed. Meteorological Satellite Center of Japan, 190 pp.

  • Mirski, S., 2015: Dispute in the South China Sea: A legal primer. Lawfare. [Available online at http://www.lawfareblog.com/dispute-south-china-sea-legal-primer.]

  • NCEP, 2003: The GFS Atmospheric Model. NCEP Office Note 442, 14 pp. Accessed 26 April 2016. [Available online at http://www.lib.ncep.noaa.gov/ncepofficenotes/files/on442.pdf.]

  • Ngo-Duc, T., and Coauthors, 2016: Performance evaluation of RegCM4 in simulating extreme rainfall and temperature indices over the CORDEX-Southeast Asia region. Int. J. Climatol., doi:10.1002/joc.4803, in press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ott, R. L., and M. T. Longnecker, 2001: An Introduction to Statistics Methods and Data Analysis. 5th ed. Duxbury Press, 1152 pp.

  • Reynolds, R. W., N. A. Rayner, T. M. Smith, D. C. Stokes, and W. Wang, 2002: An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. J. Climate, 15, 16091625, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<1609:AIISAS>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sanders, F., and J. R. Gyakum, 1980: Synoptic-dynamic climatology of the “bomb.” Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 15891606, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1980)108<1589:SDCOT>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shaw, P.-T., and S.-Y. Chao, 1994: Surface circulation in the South China Sea. Deep-Sea Res., 41, 16631683, doi:10.1016/0967-0637(94)90067-1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tangang, F. T., and L. Juneng, 2004: Mechanisms of Malaysian rainfall anomalies. J. Climate, 17, 36163622, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<3616:MOMRA>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tangang, F. T., and Coauthors, 2015: The Southeast Asia Regional Climate Downscaling (SEACLID) project. APN Sci. Bull., 5, 45. [Available online at https://www.apn-gcr.org/resources/files/original/d00f4b82600b7c089e042d2170357f78.pdf.]

  • Tarrant, B., Ed., 2010: Malacca Strait is a strategic ‘chokepoint.’ Reuters. [Available online at http://in.reuters.com/article/idINIndia-46652220100304.]

  • U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2013: The South China Sea is an important world energy trade route. 4 April 2013, “Today in Energy,” EIA. Accessed 2016. [Available online at http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/ detail.php?id=10671.]

  • White, G. H., 1982: An observational study of the Northern Hemisphere extratropical summertime general circulation. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 2440, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1982)039<0024:AOSOTN>2.0.CO;2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wyrtki, K., 1961: Physical oceanography of the Southeast Asian water. NAGA Report, Vol. 2, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 195 pp. [Available online at http://escholarship.org/uc/item/49n9x3t4.]

  • Yatagai, A., K. Kamiguchi, O. Arakawa, A. Hamada, N. Yasutomi, and A. Kitoh, 2012: APHRODITE: Constructing a long-term daily gridded precipitation dataset for Asia based on a dense network of rain gauges. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 14011415, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00122.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 143 87 2
PDF Downloads 133 86 2

Interannual Variation of the Cold-Season Rainfall Center in the South China Sea

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa
  • | 2 Department of Geography, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, and Department of Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere–Land Processes Research, JAMSTEC, Yokosuka, Japan
Restricted access

Abstract

During 15 November–31 December, a cold-season rainfall center appears in the southern part of the South China Sea (SCS) north of northwestern Borneo and juxtaposed along the southwest–northeast direction with rainfall centers for the Malay Peninsula and the Philippines. This SCS rainfall center also coincides geographically with the SCS surface trough. An effort is made to explore the formation mechanism of this rainfall center. It is primarily formed by the second intensification of heavy rainfall/flood cold surge vortex [CSV(HRF)] through its interaction with a cold surge flow over the SCS trough. Both the SCS rainfall center and the SCS surface trough are located at the easterly flow north of the near-equator trough. Modulated by the interannual variation of the cyclonic shear flow along the near-equator trough in concert with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, the SCS rainfall center undergoes an interannual variation. The impact of this ENSO cycle is accomplished through the regulation of CSV(HRF) trajectories originating from the Philippines vicinity and Borneo and propagating to different destinations. Rain-producing efficiency determined by the interannual variation of the divergent circulation accompanies the cyclonic shear flow around the near-equator trough in response to this ENSO cycle.

Supplemental information related to this paper is available at the Journals Online website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0419.s1.

Corresponding author e-mail: Tsing-Chang (Mike) Chen, tmchen@iastate.edu

Abstract

During 15 November–31 December, a cold-season rainfall center appears in the southern part of the South China Sea (SCS) north of northwestern Borneo and juxtaposed along the southwest–northeast direction with rainfall centers for the Malay Peninsula and the Philippines. This SCS rainfall center also coincides geographically with the SCS surface trough. An effort is made to explore the formation mechanism of this rainfall center. It is primarily formed by the second intensification of heavy rainfall/flood cold surge vortex [CSV(HRF)] through its interaction with a cold surge flow over the SCS trough. Both the SCS rainfall center and the SCS surface trough are located at the easterly flow north of the near-equator trough. Modulated by the interannual variation of the cyclonic shear flow along the near-equator trough in concert with the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, the SCS rainfall center undergoes an interannual variation. The impact of this ENSO cycle is accomplished through the regulation of CSV(HRF) trajectories originating from the Philippines vicinity and Borneo and propagating to different destinations. Rain-producing efficiency determined by the interannual variation of the divergent circulation accompanies the cyclonic shear flow around the near-equator trough in response to this ENSO cycle.

Supplemental information related to this paper is available at the Journals Online website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0419.s1.

Corresponding author e-mail: Tsing-Chang (Mike) Chen, tmchen@iastate.edu

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplemental Materials (PDF 6.50 MB)
Save