Formation Mechanisms of the Pacific–North American Teleconnection with and without Its Canonical Tropical Convection Pattern

Ying Dai Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China

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Steven B. Feldstein Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania

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Benkui Tan Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China

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Sukyoung Lee Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, and School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea

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Abstract

The mechanisms that drive the Pacific–North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern with and without its canonical tropical convection pattern are investigated with daily ERA-Interim and NOAA OLR data (the former pattern is referred to as the convective PNA, and the latter pattern is referred to as the nonconvective PNA). Both the convective and nonconvective positive PNA are found to be preceded by wave activity fluxes associated with a Eurasian wave train. These wave activity fluxes enter the central subtropical Pacific, a location that is favorable for barotropic wave amplification, just prior to the rapid growth of the PNA. The wave activity fluxes are stronger for the positive nonconvective PNA, suggesting that barotropic amplification plays a greater role in its development. The negative convective PNA is also preceded by a Eurasian wave train, whereas the negative nonconvective PNA grows from the North Pacific contribution to a circumglobal teleconnection pattern. Driving by high-frequency eddy vorticity fluxes is largest for the negative convective PNA, indicating that a positive feedback may be playing a more dominant role in its development.

The lifetimes of convective PNA events are found to be longer than those of nonconvective PNA events, with the former (latter) persisting for about three (two) weeks. Furthermore, the frequency of the positive (negative) convective PNA is about 40% (60%) greater than that of the positive (negative) nonconvective PNA.

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author e-mail: Benkui Tan, bktan@pku.edu.cn

Abstract

The mechanisms that drive the Pacific–North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern with and without its canonical tropical convection pattern are investigated with daily ERA-Interim and NOAA OLR data (the former pattern is referred to as the convective PNA, and the latter pattern is referred to as the nonconvective PNA). Both the convective and nonconvective positive PNA are found to be preceded by wave activity fluxes associated with a Eurasian wave train. These wave activity fluxes enter the central subtropical Pacific, a location that is favorable for barotropic wave amplification, just prior to the rapid growth of the PNA. The wave activity fluxes are stronger for the positive nonconvective PNA, suggesting that barotropic amplification plays a greater role in its development. The negative convective PNA is also preceded by a Eurasian wave train, whereas the negative nonconvective PNA grows from the North Pacific contribution to a circumglobal teleconnection pattern. Driving by high-frequency eddy vorticity fluxes is largest for the negative convective PNA, indicating that a positive feedback may be playing a more dominant role in its development.

The lifetimes of convective PNA events are found to be longer than those of nonconvective PNA events, with the former (latter) persisting for about three (two) weeks. Furthermore, the frequency of the positive (negative) convective PNA is about 40% (60%) greater than that of the positive (negative) nonconvective PNA.

© 2017 American Meteorological Society. For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy (www.ametsoc.org/PUBSReuseLicenses).

Corresponding author e-mail: Benkui Tan, bktan@pku.edu.cn
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